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Latest & greatest articles for statin
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Efficacy of statin therapy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis from 2008-2019. Statins produce significant hypolipidemic effects and reduce C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It has been reported that statins did not prevent the acute exacerbation of COPD or improve clinical outcomes. We therefore analyzed the actual therapeutic effects of statins on COPD therapy during long-term clinical (...) trials.Relevant studies were retrieved from various databases from 2008 to 2019. For each study, odds ratios (ORs), mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were assessed.Thirty-two studies were retrieved with 3,137 patients receiving statin therapy and 3,140 controls. Satins significantly increased exercise capacity (47.21, 95% CI: 20.79-73.63), lung FEV1 (4.02, 95% CI: 2.28-5.75), forced expiratory volume in 1s/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) (3.56, 95% CI: 2.01-5.10) and high-density
Statin use and survival in patients with gastric cancer in two independent population-based cohorts. Preclinical studies show statins inhibit pathways involved in gastric cancer progression, with observational studies demonstrating reduced gastric cancer risk in statin users. However, few studies have investigated statin use and survival in gastric cancer. We investigated statin use and survival in two large population-based gastric cancer cohorts.Patients diagnosed with gastric cancer from (...) 1998 to 2012 were identified from English and Scottish cancer registries. Statin prescriptions were identified from linkages to the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink in England and the Prescribing Information System in Scotland, and deaths identified from national mortality records. Time-dependent Cox regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for cancer-specific mortality by statin use in multivariate analysis. Meta-analysis techniques
Effects of clazosentan, cilostazol, and statins on aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis. Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is a disease caused by the infiltration of blood into the subarachnoid space due to the rupture of an intracranial aneurysm. It is a serious cerebrovascular disease, with a mortality rate of about 40% worldwide, which seriously threatens human life and health. Many drugs are used to treat aSAH and its complications (...) , and some have been tested in systematic reviews and have shown good effects. But which drug has the best effect remains unclear. This network meta-analysis (NMA) aims to assess the effectiveness and feasibility of clazosentan, cilostazol, and statins in patients with aSAH.We will search for EMBASE.com, PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and Web of Science from inception to December 2019. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting efficacy and safety of clazosentan, cilostazol, and statins compared
The Safety and Tolerability of Statin Therapy in Primary Prevention in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. The use of statins in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increasing in older adults. Nonetheless, good clinical evidence for the safety and tolerability of statins in this population is limited.We aimed to evaluate the safety and tolerability of statins in older adults without overt CVD, focusing on statin-related muscle symptoms.Double-blinded (...) randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of statins published before January 2012 were identified from a Cochrane review updated to 2012. Trials published between January 2012 and July 2018 were identified through the CENTRAL, MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. Eligible trials were limited to those including individuals aged ≥ 65 years without overt CVD, who were followed for at least 1 year. Trials had to have reported at least one of the outcomes of interest. Pooled relative risk (RR) estimates and 95
Efficacy and safety of statin use in children and adolescents with familial hypercholesterolaemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials. Statins are the mainstay of treatment for patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH). However, their efficacy and safety in children and adolescents with FH has not been well-documented. The purpose of this study was to systematically investigate and meta-analyze the best available evidence from randomized-controlled (...) trials (RCTs) regarding the efficacy and safety of statins in this population.A comprehensive search was conducted in PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane, up to 10 January 2020. Data were expressed as mean differences with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The I2 index was employed for heterogeneity.Ten RCTs were included in the qualitative and quantitative analysis (1191 patients, aged 13.3 ± 2.5 years). Compared with placebo, statins led to a mean relative reduction in total cholesterol (TC), low-density
Effect of Coenzyme Q10 on statin-associated myalgia and adherence to statin therapy: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Statin associated muscle symptoms are common and affect adherence to statin treatment. The objective of this study was to assess whether patients with statin-associated myalgia can be successfully treated with Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) to improve symptoms and maintain them on statin therapy.This systematic review was performed in line with the 2015 PRISMA statement. Relevant (...) studies were identified via a search of MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library. Studies were screened to include randomised controlled trials of oral CoQ10 supplementation versus a placebo in adults with statin-associated myalgia. Continuation of statin therapy was a secondary outcome. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Pooled and sensitivity analyses were performed.413 records were identified by the search strategy. Eight studies were selected for review, and 7 of them
Reasons for Nonadherence to Statins - A Systematic Review of Reviews. Lipid-lowering medications are often prescribed to decrease the risk of micro- and macro-cardiovascular complications related to dyslipidaemia. Despite widespread prescription of lipid-lowering drugs, including statins, adherence to therapy is a challenge worldwide. This systematic review of reviews aimed to conduct a critical appraisal and synthesis of review findings and to provide an overview of the factors that were found (...) to affect adherence to lipid-lowering drugs, focusing on statins, in the reviews.A systematic review methodology was used. MEDLINE, Embase, and Epistemonikos databases were searched for relevant publications. AMSTAR 2 criteria were used to assess the quality of the selected publications.From a total of 763 screened publications, 9 met all inclusion criteria and were included in this synthesis. Several factors were identified as being associated with adherence to lipid-lowering agents. Among them, high
Non-statin interventions in the prevention of cardiovascular events: Sex-based meta-analysis. To explore the sex-specific association of non-statin classes of drugs in reducing cardiovascular outcomes.Published data search up to November 2019 reporting primary outcomes that approximate with major vascular events (MVEs) after treatment with non-statin group of drugs was performed. The primary outcome was the sex-specific association with MVEs. Random-effects meta-analysis was performed (...) to estimate relative risk (RR) of the individual classes of therapies.Seven Randomized Clinical Trials (RCTs) including 122,164 patients were included in our analysis. Four studies compared the Triglyceride (TG)-lowering group of drugs with placebo and 3 studies compared low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) lowering drugs with placebo. Overall, with non-statin drugs, there was no difference in the risk reduction of cardiovascular (CV) events between men (RR 0.86; 95% CI 0.79-0.94, p-value <0.001
Effects and Safety of Statin and Ezetimibe Combination Therapy in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. The efficacy and safety of statin and ezetimibe combination therapy in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains unclear. To assess the effect of statin and ezetimibe combination therapy on controlling lipid profiles and reducing cardiovascular events in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), we conducted a systematic review and meta (...) -analysis. We selected randomized controlled trials comparing this combination therapy with statin monotherapy or placebo in patients with CKD from the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases published before 1 September 2018 on the internet. Eight articles in seven studies, with a total of 14,016 patients with CKD, were selected from 412 full-text articles. Statin and ezetimibe combination therapy had beneficial effects on serum total cholesterol (weighted mean
Meta-analysis Comparing Combined Use of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Statin to Statin Alone. Role of omega-3-Fatty acids, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), in reducing cardiovascular events is not clear. We conducted a meta-analysis including trial sequential analysis (TSA) of all available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the impact of EPA + statin on cardiovascular risk reduction. The aim is to appraise cardiovascular risk reduction with EPA and statin taken together (...) . A comprehensive search of PubMed and EMBASE databases was conducted for all RCTs that compared EPA + Statin versus statin alone and included outcomes related to cardiovascular health. We calculated a comprehensive odds ratio (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a random-effects model. We included 5 RCTs totaling 27,415 patients. Our results demonstrated that EPA + statin resulted in 18% reduction in the incidence of MACE (OR = 0.78; 95% CI: 0.65 to 0.93, I2 = 54%, p value <0.01) and 30% reduction
Statins Reduce Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Growth, Rupture, and Perioperative Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Background There are no recognized pharmacological treatments for abdominal aortic aneurysms ( AAA ), although statins are suggested to be beneficial. We sought to summarize the literature regarding the effects of statins on human AAA growth, rupture, and 30-day mortality. Methods and Results We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized (...) cohort studies involving 80 428 patients were included. The risk of bias was low to moderate. Statin use was associated with a mean AAA growth rate reduction of 0.82 mm/y (95% confidence interval 0.33, 1.32, P=0.001, I2=86%). Statins were also associated with a lower rupture risk (odds ratio 0.63, 95% confidence interval 0.51, 0.78, P<0.0001, I2=27%), and preoperative statin use was associated with a lower 30-day mortality following elective AAA repair (odds ratio 0.55, 95% confidence interval 0.36
Effects of Coenzyme Q10 on Statin-Induced Myopathy: An Updated Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Background Previous studies have demonstrated a possible association between the induction of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) after statin treatment and statin-induced myopathy. However, whether CoQ10 supplementation ameliorates statin-induced myopathy remains unclear. Methods and Results PubMed, EMBASE , and Cochrane Library were searched to identify randomized controlled trials investigating (...) the effect of CoQ10 on statin-induced myopathy. We calculated the pooled weighted mean difference ( WMD ) using a fixed-effect model and a random-effect model to assess the effects of CoQ10 supplementation on statin-associated muscle symptoms and plasma creatine kinase. The methodological quality of the studies was determined, according to the Cochrane Handbook. Publication bias was evaluated by a funnel plot, Egger regression test, and the Begg-Mazumdar correlation test. Twelve randomized controlled
Association Between Baseline, Achieved, and Reduction of CRP and Cardiovascular Outcomes After LDL Cholesterol Lowering with Statins or Ezetimibe: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Background Several lipid-lowering therapies reduce CRP (C-reactive protein) independently of LDL-C (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) reduction, but the association between CRP parameters and benefits from more-intensive LDL-C lowering is inconclusive. We aimed to determine whether the benefits of more (...) - versus less-intensive LDL-C lowering on cardiovascular events related to baseline, achieved, or magnitude of reduction in CRP concentrations. Methods and Results PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane were searched through July 2, 2018. We included randomized controlled cardiovascular outcome trials of LDL-C lowering with statins or ezetimibe. Two reviewers independently extracted study data and rated study quality. Data were analyzed using meta-analysis and metaregression analysis. Rate ratios of mortality
Statin and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus infection: a meta-analysis. Statin may confer anticancer effect. However, the association between statin and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C (HCV) virus infection remains inconsistent according to results of previous studies. A meta-analysis was performed to summarize current evidence.Related follow-up studies were obtained (...) by systematic search of PubMed, Cochrane's Library, and Embase databases. A random-effect model was used to for the meta-analysis. Stratified analyses were performed to evaluate the influences of study characteristics on the outcome.Thirteen studies with 519,707 patients were included. Statin use was associated with reduced risk of HCC in these patients (risk ratio [RR]: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.44 to 0.66, p < 0.001; I2 = 86%). Stratified analyses showed that the association between statin use and reduced HCC risk
Efficacy of Ezetimibe/Simvastatin (10/10 mg) versus High Dose Statin in Dyslipidemia Patients: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. The monotherapies of statin and ezetimibe had not successfully achieved their objectives in the management of lipid levels of dyslipidemia patients. We aimed to compare the effects of combined low-dose simvastatin and ezetimibe versus high-dose statin on the lipid-lowering treatment of dyslipidemia patients.We searched five databases published before (...) May 2018, namely PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, Web of Science, and Clinicaltrials.gov. Completely published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effect of high-dose statin (S) with ezetimibe/simvastatin (10/10 mg; E/S) on the management of dyslipidemia patients were included.A total of ten RCTs met the inclusion criteria, including 1,624 patients (E/S:691, S:933). Six outcomes underwent pooled analysis, including weighted mean difference (WMD) from baseline in total cholesterol (TC), low
Statin uses and mortality in colorectal cancer patients: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains one of the most common types of cancer and a leading cause of death worldwide. Previous studies indicated that statins may have a potential protective effect on CRC.We conducted this meta-analysis to systematically assess the overall and cancer-specific survival benefit of statin uses on CRC patients. Related references were identified through PubMed (...) , the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, EMBASE, and SCOPUS from inception to August 2017. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were adopted to calculate summary hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs), using a random-effects model.Total fourteen studies involving 130 994 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Six studies reported the association between pre-diagnosis statin uses and CRC mortality, while 11 studies investigated mortality in patients using statins after CRC diagnosis
Effect of statin use on the risk of rheumatoid arthritis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating effects of statins suggest that they may play a role in the risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies assessing the risk of RA in statin-users versus non-users.We searched Medline from inception to 01/22/2019 and Embase from 1988 to Week 03 2019 for studies that examined the association between (...) statin use and RA without restrictions on language.We identified 1,161 references; of them 8 studies (5 cohort studies and 3 case-control studies) were included in the systematic review. Four cohort studies comparing statin-users versus non-users were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled risk ratio (RR) was 1.01; 95%CI 0.93-1.10; I2 = 17%. Case-control studies showed highly heterogeneous results (I2 = 92%) and were not included in the meta-analysis. One cohort study and one case-control study
Statin Use and the Risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies. BackgroundandAims: Statins are the first-line medication to treating hypercholesterolemia. Several studies have investigated the impact of statins on the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the extent to which statins may prevent HCC remains uncertain. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis of relevant studies to quantify the magnitude of the association between statins use and the risk (...) of HCC. Methods: A systematic literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and Scopus was performed for studies published between January 1, 1990, and September 1, 2019, with no restriction of language. Two reviewers independently evaluated the literature and included observational and experimental studies that reported the association between statin use and HCC risk. The random-effect model was used to calculate the overall risk ratio (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI
Statin use improves survival in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: A meta-analysis. Previous studies on statins' effect on survival of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) report conflicting results.To evaluate the association between statin use and PDAC patients' survival.A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed including case-control, cohort studies and randomized controlled trials assessing the association between statin use and survival in PDAC (...) patients. Pooled HRs with 95%CIs were calculated using random effects model; publication bias was assessed through Begg and Mazumdar test and heterogeneity by I2 value.14 studies with 33,137 PDAC patients, 40% under statins, were included. Statins use was associated to a reduced death risk (HR 0.871; 95%CI: 0.819; 0.927; p = 0.0001) suggesting a protective effect, homogeneous for different geographic areas. This effect was significant in surgically resected patients (HR 0.50; 95%CI: 0.32; 0.76; p