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Latest & greatest articles for statin
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Comparative efficacy of statins, metformin, spironolactone and combined oral contraceptives in reducing testosterone levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a network meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder affecting about 10% of women in reproductive age and associated with a variety of hormonal abnormalities, including hyperandrogenemia and infertility, all of which could lead to PCOS. Statins were previously introduced (...) as a therapeutic option for reducing testosterone levels in women with PCOS, either alone or in combination. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of different statins alone or in combination with metformin in reducing testosterone levels in women with PCOS.Medline, Embase, and clinicaltrials.gov were searched for studies that investigated the efficacy of statins, metformin, spironolactone, or combined oral contraceptives (COCs), individually or in combination, in reducing the testosterone
Statin use and the prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: a meta-analysis. Association between statin use and prognosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unknown. We performed a meta-analysis of follow-up studies to systematically evaluate the influence of statin use on clinical outcome in HCC patients.Studies were obtained via systematic search of PubMed, Cochrane's Library, and Embase databases. A randomized-effect model was used to pool the results (...) . Subgroup analyses were performed to evaluate the influence of study characteristics on the association.Nine retrospective cohort studies were included. Overall, statin use was associated with a reduced all-cause mortality in HCC patients (risk ratio [RR]: 0.81, 95% CI: 0.74-0.88, P < 0.001; I2 = 63%). Subgroup analyses showed similar results for patients with stage I-III HCC (RR: 0.83, 0.79, and 0.90 respectively, P all < 0.01) and patients after palliative therapy for HCC (RR: 0.80, P < 0.001
Does Co-administration of Antihypertensive Drugs and Statins Alter Their Efficacy and Safety? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Antihypertensive drugs (AHTDs) and statins are frequently administered together, but there is uncertainty on whether the presence of one affects the main effects of the other. This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the effects of co-administered AHTDs and statins on blood pressure (BP) and cholesterol. MEDLINE, Cochrane (...) Central Register of Controlled Trials and drug regulatory agency websites were searched, until January 2018. Twelve double-blind randomized controlled trials that allocated adults with or without hypertension and/or hyperlipidemia (n = 4434) to fixed doses of AHTD alone, statin alone and both drugs together, for ≥4 weeks, were included. BP lowering was similar with AHTD + statin compared with AHTD alone [systolic BP -0.1 mm Hg, 95% confidence interval (CI), -1.0 to 0.8, and diastolic BP -1.0 mm Hg, 95
Impact of statin use on cancer-specific mortality and recurrence: A meta-analysis of 60 observational studies. This meta-analysis mainly summarized the studies reporting an association between statin use and cancer-specific mortality and recurrence or progression of cancer patients.We systematically searched for studies about the statin used in cancer patients in electronic databases, including PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane, Clinical Trials, from inception through the November 2019. A total (...) of 60 studies which included 953,177 participants were eligible with 233,322 cancer patients used statin. Our analysis selected studies presented with outcome based on hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of cancer-specific mortality and cancer recurrence-free survival or progression-free survival. Heterogeneity between the studies was examined using I statistics, and sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the robustness of the findings. All statistical analyses were
Association of statin use and clinical outcomes in heart failure patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The role of statins in patients with heart failure (HF) of different levels of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) remains unclear especially in the light of the absence of prospective data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in non-ischemic HF, and taking into account potential statins' prosarcopenic effects. We assessed the association of statin use with clinical (...) outcomes in patients with HF.We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Google Scholar and Cochrane Central until August 2018 for RCTs and prospective cohorts comparing clinical outcomes with statin vs non-statin use in patients with HF at different LVEF levels. We followed the guidelines of the 2009 PRISMA statement for reporting and applied independent extraction by multiple observers. Meta-analyses of hazard ratios (HRs) of effects of statins on clinical outcomes used generic inverse variance method
Statin Use Decreases the Incidence of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: An Updated Meta-Analysis. Statins can decrease hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occurrence, but the magnitude and the predictors of these effects remain unclear. This meta-analysis provides a pooled estimate of the impact of statin use on HCC occurrence. Pooled effects were calculated using a random-effects model by means of the DerSimonian and Laird test. Primary endpoint was the time-dependent correlation between statin use and HCC (...) incidence expressed as hazard ratio (HR), both crude and adjusted. The crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) for HCC occurrence between statin users and non-users were analyzed. Twenty-five studies with 1,925,964 patients were included. Crude OR for HCC incidence was 0.59 (95% CI: 0.47-0.74), confirmed in adjusted analysis (OR: 0.74, 95% CI: 0.70-0.78). Adjusted HR was 0.73 (95% CI: 0.69-0.76). This effect was more pronounced in HBV patients (HR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.36-0.60) and with a cumulative daily dose
Statins and Colorectal Cancer - A Systematic Review. Statins act by inhibiting 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase and are an important drug class in the treatment of lipid disorders. They lower cholesterol levels and modulate cardiovascular disease risk in both primary and secondary prevention. In addition, some studies have shown that statins may have an effect on colorectal cancer development and treatment. Our objective is to summarize published studies on the effect of statins (...) on colorectal carcinogenesis.A systematic review of the PubMed and Cochrane databases was performed to identify studies published between April 2010 and April 2018 that investigated the association between statin use and colorectal cancer incidence, mortality, and treatment.Overall, 126 articles were identified with our search strategy. Based on the eligibility criteria, 69 studies were excluded from the review process. In vitro and animal studies have shown a potential chemopreventive effect of statins
Effect of Statin Therapy on Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Growth Rate and Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. To explore the effects of statin therapy with the abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) growth rate and mortality.Databases of PubMed, Embase, Ovid, Wanfang and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) database were investigated for eligible literatures from their establishments to May, 2019. Included studies were selected according to precise eligibility criteria. Statistical (...) analysis were performed by RevMan 5.3 software.Fourteen studies with a total of 38749 patients of whom 15993 underwent statins treatment and 22756 underwent placebo or conventional therapy were eligible for meta-analysis. The pooled results indicated that the statin use was related to a significantly lower AAA growth rate (Mean Difference=-1.5 mm/y; 95% CI=-1.99 to -1.02; p < 0.00001). In addition, statins can significantly reduce the short-term mortality (in-hospital or 30-day) (Odds Ratio =0.63; 95
Statin, cholesterol, and sICH after acute ischemic stroke: systematic review and meta-analysis. Conflicts exist regarding relationship between prior/new statin use, cholesterol, and early poststroke intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients. This meta-analysis is aimed at evaluating the safety of prior/new statin use, cholesterol level and risk of ICH in AIS patients.We searched PubMed and Embase for studies examining relation between statin use, cholesterol level (...) , and early poststroke ICH in AIS. Included studies should report risk of early poststroke symptomatic ICH (sICH) or overall ICH. A random-effects model was used to pool the data.Twenty-five articles involving 26,327 participants were included, among whom 925 had sICH. Prior statin use was not associated with overall ICH (adjusted odds ratio (OR), 1.478; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.924-2.362; p = 0.103) and sICH in patients who received thrombolysis (adjusted OR, 1.567; 95% CI, 0.994-2.471; p = 0.053
Meta-Analysis of Usefulness of Treatment of Hypercholesterolemia With Statins for Primary Prevention in Patients Older Than 75 Years. Clinical guidelines from the United States and Europe do not recommend treatment with statins for primary prevention in patients with hypercholesterolemia who are older than 75 years. Data from 35 randomized controlled trials in this age group where statin therapy for primary prevention was compared with placebo or usual care were analyzed. Using all-cause death (...) as the outcome, we performed 2 types of analyses: frequentist and Bayesian. Frequentist analysis indicated no significant difference in mortality between cases (on statins) and controls (on placebo or usual care, p = 0.16). However, in the Bayesian analysis, patients >75 years had lower mortality from treatment with statins (p = 0.03). In conclusion, Bayesian analysis indicates a definite, statistically significant and clinically relevant benefit of statin treatment for primary prevention in patients >75
Influence of Statins on Circulating Inflammatory Cytokines in Patients With Abnormal Glucose Homeostasis: A Meta-analysis of Data From Randomized Controlled Trials. Chronic inflammation increases the risks for cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and cancer. Recently, the antiinflammatory effects of statins, as cholesterol-lowering medications, have been considered. This study systematically reviewed and summarized earlier findings from randomized clinical trials about the effects (...) of statins on serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin (IL)-6 in patients with abnormal glucose homeostasis.Relevant articles published through October 2019 were searched using suitable key words on the PubMed/MEDLINE, SCOPUS, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases. RCTs were included if they compared the effects of statins on serum concentrations of CRP and IL-6 in adults with abnormal glucose homeostasis. The effect sizes were represented as weighted mean differences (WMDs) and 95
Statin treatment and accrual of covert cerebral ischaemia on neuroimaging: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. Prevention of ischaemic stroke and cardiovascular events is an established benefit of statin therapy, but the effects of statin treatment on the accrual of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) markers of ischaemic cerebral injury remain unknown. A systematic review was performed to identify all studies that randomized patients with cardiovascular risk factors (...) to statin treatment and assessed the effect of statin treatment on covert infarcts (asymptomatic, evident only on neuroimaging) and white matter hyperintensity (WMH) accrual on MRI.A systematic review in MEDLINE and Scopus from inception to 23 October 2019 was performed. A random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled estimates of the crude risk ratios and standardized mean differences.Data from three randomized controlled trials (1430 participants) were included evaluating the effect
Statins and gastroesophageal reflux disease: A meta-analysis. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is one of the common gastrointestinal disorders worldwide. Recent epidemiologic studies have suggested that use of statins may lower the risk of GERD although the results from different studies were inconsistent. This systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted with the aim to summarize all available data.A systematic literature review was performed using MEDLINE and EMBASE database from (...) inception to December 2017. Cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies that compared the risk of GERD among statin users versus nonusers were included. Pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using a random-effect, generic inverse variance method.A total of 4 studies (1 case control, 1 cohort, and 2 cross-sectional studies) with 14,505 participants met the eligibility criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. The risk of GERD among statin users
language studies retrieved from PubMed and EMBASE (from inception through March 2019). We included 29 articles (16 case reports, 5 observational, 5 clinical pharmacokinetic and 3 in vitro studies). Based on mechanistic/clinical studies involving clarithromycin or the related macrolide erythromycin (both strong inhibitors of CYP3A4 and of hepatic statin uptake transporters OATP1B1 and OATP1B3), clarithromycin is expected to substantially increase systemic exposure to simvastatin and lovastatin (>5-fold (...) Interaction potential between clarithromycin and individual statins-A systematic review. The high prevalence of statin and clarithromycin utilization creates potential for overlapping use. The objectives of this MiniReview were to investigate the evidence base for drug-drug interactions between clarithromycin and currently marketed statins and to present management strategies for these drug combinations. We conducted a systematic literature review following PRISMA guidelines with English
Receipt of Statins Is Associated With Lower Risk of Multiple Myeloma: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Studies on receipt of statins and risk of multiple myeloma (MM) yielded conflicting results. This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted in order to comprehensively investigate the relationship between receipt of statins and risk of MM.Potentially eligible studies that compared the risk of MM between statin recipients and those who did not receive statins were identified from (...) Medline and Embase databases from inception to August 2019 using a search strategy that comprised terms for "statin" and "multiple myeloma." To be eligible, cohort studies must have recruited 2 groups of participants, statin recipients and nonrecipients, and followed their participants for incident MM. Eligible case-control studies must have recruited cases of MM and controls without MM, and must have explored the history of receipt of statins. Relative risk, hazard risk ratio, standardized incidence
Statin and Cancer Mortality and Survival: An Umbrella Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. The aim of this study is to provide an overview and understand the strength of evidence and the extent of potential biases and the validity of claimed associations between the use of statins and cancer mortality or survival. We performed a comprehensive umbrella review of meta-analyses and systematically appraised the relevant meta-analyses of observational studies on the associations between statin use (...) and cancer mortality or survival in various kinds of cancer. We searched the PubMed database and screened the reference list of relevant articles. We obtained the summary effect, 95% confidence interval, heterogeneity, and also examined small study effects and 95% prediction intervals for effect sizes, and the level of evidence was determined from the criteria. Regarding cancer mortality, statin use showed convincing evidence for an association with a reduced cancer-specific mortality rate for colorectal
Evidence of heterogeneity in statin-associated type 2 diabetes mellitus risk: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and observational studies. To conduct a meta-analysis of statin-associated type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) risk among randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies (OBSs), excluding studies conducted among secondary prevention populations.Studies were identified by searching PubMed (1994-present) and EMBASE (1994-present). Articles had to meet (...) the following criteria: (1) follow-up >one year; (2) >50% of participants free of clinically diagnosed ASCVD; (3) adult participants ≥30 years old; (4) reported statin-associated T2D effect estimates; and (5) quantified precision using 95% confidence interval. Data were pooled using random-effects model.We identified 23 studies (35% RCTs) of n = 4,012,555 participants. OBS participants were on average younger (mean difference = 6.2 years) and had lower mean low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, mean
Statins for children with familial hypercholesterolemia. Familial hypercholesterolemia is one of the most common inherited metabolic diseases and is an autosomal dominant disorder meaning heterozygotes, or carriers, are affected. Those who are homozygous have severe disease. The average worldwide prevalence of heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia is at least 1 in 500, although recent genetic epidemiological data from Denmark and next generation sequencing data suggest the frequency may (...) significant reductions in their serum total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. While statins seem to be safe and well-tolerated in children, their long-term safety in this age group is not firmly established. This is an update of a previously published version of this Cochane Review.To assess the effectiveness and safety of statins in children with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.Relevant studies were identified from the Group's Inborn Errors and Metabolism Trials Register
Beneficial effect of statin on preventing contrast-induced acute kidney injury in patients with renal insufficiency: A meta-analysis. Renal insufficiency is an important predictor of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI). We performed a meta-analysis to examine the effects of short-term statin therapy on the incidence of CI-AKI, particularly in patients with renal insufficiency.A systematic search was conducted to retrieve randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that investigated the impact (...) of statin pretreatment before administration of contrast media on the development of CI-AKI in patients with mild to moderate renal insufficiency. The primary outcome was development of CI-AKI. The secondary outcome was the incidence ofacute kidney injury requiring hemodialysis.Data analysis from 8 RCTs, which included a total of 2313 subjects in the statin-treated group and 2322 in the control group, showed that statin pretreatment was associated with significant reduction of the risk of CI-AKI
Effect of Statin Therapy on Fibrous Cap Thickness in Coronary Plaque on Optical Coherence Tomographyã€€- Review and Meta-Analysis. Statin therapy has been shown to result in coronary plaque regression, but the relationship between statin use and stabilization of coronary plaque has not been elucidated. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of statin therapy on fibrous cap thickness (FCT) on optical coherence tomography (OCT).Methods and Results:Nine OCT (...) studies (6 randomized controlled trials and 3 observational studies) were enrolled with a total of 341 patients (390 lesions). Arms of the studies were grouped according to statin type and/or dose. Random effects meta-analysis was used to estimate a pooled mean change in FCT from baseline to follow-up. The overall effect mean FCT change was 67.7 µm (95% CI: 51.4-84.1, I2=95.0%, P<0.001). All statin groups had an increase in FCT, but the magnitude of the increase differed according to the statin. Two