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Latest & greatest articles for statin
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Statins for aortic valve stenosis. Aortic valve stenosis is the most common type of valvular heart disease in the USA and Europe. Aortic valve stenosis is considered similar to atherosclerotic disease. Some studies have evaluated statins for aortic valve stenosis.To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of statins in aortic valve stenosis.We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS - IBECS, Web of Science and CINAHL Plus. These databases (...) were searched from their inception to 24 November 2015. We also searched trials in registers for ongoing trials. We used no language restrictions.Randomised controlled clinical trials (RCTs) comparing statins alone or in association with other systemic drugs to reduce cholesterol levels versus placebo or usual care.Primary outcomes were severity of aortic valve stenosis (evaluated by echocardiographic criteria: mean pressure gradient, valve area and aortic jet velocity), freedom from valve
Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of HDL cholesterol response to statins. In addition to lowering low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), statin therapy also raises high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Inter-individual variation in HDL-C response to statins may be partially explained by genetic variation.We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to identify variants with an effect on statin-induced high density lipoprotein (...) cholesterol (HDL-C) changes. The 123 most promising signals with p<1×10-4 from the 16 769 statin-treated participants in the first analysis stage were followed up in an independent group of 10 951 statin-treated individuals, providing a total sample size of 27 720 individuals. The only associations of genome-wide significance (p<5×10-8) were between minor alleles at the CETP locus and greater HDL-C response to statin treatment.Based on results from this study that included a relatively large sample size
A Simple Disease-Guided Approach to Personalize ACC/AHA-Recommended Statin Allocation in Elderly People: The BioImage Study The 2013 American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines recommend primary prevention with statins for individuals with ≥7.5% 10-year risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Everyone living long enough will become eligible for risk-based statin therapy due to age alone.This study sought to personalize ACC/AHA risk-based (...) statin eligibility using noninvasive assessment of subclinical atherosclerosis.In 5,805 BioImage participants without known ASCVD at baseline, those with ≥7.5% 10-year ASCVD risk were down-classified from statin eligible to ineligible if imaging revealed no coronary artery calcium (CAC) or carotid plaque burden (cPB). Intermediate-risk individuals were up-classified from optional to clear statin eligibility if CAC was ≥100 (or equivalent cPB).At a median follow-up of 2.7 years, 91 patients had
The effect of statins on severity of psoriasis: A systematic review. Psoriasis is becoming increasingly recognized as a chronic systemic inflammatory disease. Statins are generally well-tolerated drugs with pleiotropic effects including decreasing inflammation and may have the potential to reduce psoriasis severity.To examine whether oral statins reduce the severity of psoriatic skin disease.We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and adapted for Google Scholar, Cochrane Central Register for Controlled (...) Trials and Clinical trials.gov to January 6, 2016. We primarily examined randomized controlled trials that assessed the change in PASI score over a follow-up period of at least 8 weeks, for participants with an established diagnosis of psoriasis taking an oral statin versus placebo or other active treatment. Beyond this, we also examined other interventional studies that investigated the effect of statins on psoriasis severity using other designs. We extracted efficacy and adverse event data. The two
[Impact of adherence to statins on cardiovascular adverse events in patients with coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis]. To evaluate the impact of different adherence mode to statins on cardiovascular adverse events in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD).Electronic searches, including PubMed, Scopus, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, Ovid EBM Reviews CENTRAL, CINAHL, The Cochrane Library, Ovid PsycInfo, Wanfang data, CNKI and Science & Technology Magazine Online, were performed and all (...) related literatures of all languages were retrieval till to March 1, 2015. The full text was obtained through manual retrieval, inter-library loan and document delivery service, or by contacting the author directly. According to inclusion and exclusion criteria, data was extracted dependently by two raters. The high adherence to statin was use defined by the ratio of statins cover time and the total time (proportion of days covered, PDC≥80%). Data were analyzed quantitatively using RevMan 5.1
Statin Use and Survival After Acute KidneyÂ Injury The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in hospitalized patients is rising, and survivors are at high risk for cardiovascular events and mortality. Effective strategies that improve long-term outcomes of AKI are unknown.A retrospective cohort study was performed between 2008 and 2011. All subjects were followed until 31 March 2013, with a minimum follow-up of 2 years. Participants were adults 18 years of age or older, who developed AKI (...) during a hospitalization and had chronic kidney disease (CKD) following discharge (n = 19,707 mean age 69.9 years, mean postdischarge estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 43.0 ml/min/1.73 m2). Exposure to statins was examined prior to the index hospitalization as well as within 2 years following hospital discharge. The primary outcome was mortality; secondary outcomes included all-cause re-hospitalization and cardiovascular events.Within 2 years of discharge, only 38.3% of the participants
Effects of plant stanol or sterol-enriched diets on lipid profiles in patients treated with statins: systematic review and meta-analysis. Efficacy and safety data from trials with suitable endpoints have shown that non-statin medication in combination with a statin is a potential strategy to further reduce cardiovascular events. We aimed to evaluate the overall effect of stanol- or sterol-enriched diets on serum lipid profiles in patients treated with statins by conducting a meta-analysis (...) of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We used the PubMed, Cochrane library and ClinicalTrials.gov databases to search for literature published up to December 2015. Trials were included in the analysis if they were RCTs evaluating the effect of plant stanols or sterols in patients under statin therapy that reported corresponding data on serum lipid profiles. We included 15 RCTs involving a total of 500 participants. Stanol- or sterol-enriched diets in combination with statins, compared with statins alone
Confounding of the association between statins and Parkinson disease: systematic review and meta-analysis. Both statins and higher serum cholesterol have been reported to reduce to risk of Parkinson Disease (PD). Given the importance of adjusting for cholesterol levels when evaluating the effect of statins, we assessed whether the protective effect of statins would remain when adjustment for cholesterol is performed.We conducted a systematic review of epidemiologic studies that reported (...) quantitative estimates of the association between statins and incident PD and were published through February 2016. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to assess the effect of statins on PD separately among the studies that adjusted for either cholesterol or hyperlipidemia and studies that did not.Ten eligible studies that evaluated the use of statins and incident PD were identified. Among the six studies that did not adjust for cholesterol, a protective effect of statins was observed (relative risk 0.75
Impact of Statin Therapy on Plasma Leptin Concentrations: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trials. The effects of statins on insulin sensitivity, metabolic homeostasis and adipokines in humans are controversial. Several studies have investigated the impact of statin therapy on plasma leptin concentrations but the results have been inconsistent. The aim of the present study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of available evidence (...) to calculate the effect size of statin therapy in changing serum leptin concentrations.A systematic search in PubMed-Medline, SCOPUS, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases was performed to identify randomized placebo-controlled trials investigating the effect of statins on plasma leptin concentrations. A random-effects model and generic inverse variance method were used for meta-analysis. Sensitivity analysis, risk-of-bias evaluation and publication bias assessment were carried out using standard
Effect of Statins on the Mortality of Bacteremic Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Clinical Trials. Statins modify inflammatory cell signaling during the immune response to infection. This has been considered as a pleotropic effect. Effects of statins in inflammatory conditions such as bacteremia have been found to be controversial.We examined the effect of statins on the mortality of bacteremia patients.Major databases were searched for the pertinent clinical trials.Six cohort (...) studies comprising 7553 patients were included. Hospital mortality was lower (15.36% vs 22.28%) in patients on statin.There may be a potential role of statins in similar inflammatory and infective conditions.
Impact of statin therapy on plasma adiponectin concentrations: A systematic review and meta-analysis of 43 randomized controlled trial arms. The effect of statin therapy on plasma adiponectin levels has not been conclusively studied. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate this effect through a systematic review and meta-analysis of available randomized controlled trials (RCTs).Quantitative data synthesis was performed using a random-effects model with weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence (...) interval (CI) as summary statistics.In 30 studies (43 study arms) with 2953 participants, a significant increase in plasma adiponectin levels was observed after statin therapy (WMD: 0.57 μg/mL, 95% CI: 0.18, 0.95, p = 0.004). In subgroup analysis, atorvastatin, simvastatin, rosuvastatin, pravastatin and pitavastatin were found to change plasma adiponectin concentrations by 0.70 μg/mL (95% CI: -0.26, 1.65), 0.50 μg/mL (95% CI: -0.44, 1.45), -0.70 μg/mL (95% CI: -1.08, -0.33), 0.62 μg/mL (95% CI: -0.12
The prevention of statins against AKI and mortality following cardiac surgery: A meta-analysis. It is universally acknowledged that acute kidney injury (AKI) often comes following cardiac surgery with severe morbidity and mortality. The impact of statins on the incidence of AKI and mortality after cardiac surgery are controversial, therefore, it is urgent to explore the source of heterogeneity via the subgroup analysis.We searched PubMed, ISI and Elsevier to May 31st 2016 for studies which (...) investigated the effects of statins relevant to this theme. Statistical analysis was using RevMan5.2 and Stata12.0. The outcomes were the occurrence of AKI and the mortality after cardiac surgery. For the first time, we discussed the source of heterogeneity on the basis of the characters of patients in the following subgroup analysis.A total of 17 studies with 18,684 statins and 24,033 non-statin users were included. The meta-analysis suggested that statins not only reduced the occurrence of AKI [Odds
Therapeutic efficacy of PCSK9 monoclonal antibodies in statin-nonresponsive patients with hypercholesterolemia and dyslipidemia: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia and dyslipidemia are the predominant causes for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Clinical guidelines for lowering CVD risk have advocated that low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) must be reduced. The primary choice of therapy for controlling lipidemia has been statins, which (...) are not completely effective. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type-9 (PCSK9), which interferes with LDL clearance from circulation, inversely relates to the LDL-C levels. The loss of statin efficacy is likely due to increased circulating PCSK9 and antibody therapy against PCSK9 has been found to be efficacious in lowering LDL-C. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of PCSK9-mAbs for lowering LDL-C, in statin non-responsive hypercholesterolemia patients.PubMed, EMBASE, Scholar, Web of Science
Statins for age-related macular degeneration. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a progressive, late-onset disorder of the macula affecting central vision. It is the leading cause of blindness in people over 65 years in industrialized countries. Recent epidemiologic, genetic, and pathological evidence has shown that AMD shares a number of risk factors with atherosclerosis, leading to the hypothesis that statins may exert protective effects in AMD.The objective of this review (...) was to examine the effectiveness of statins compared with other treatments, no treatment, or placebo in delaying the onset and progression of AMD.We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2016, Issue 3), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to March 2016), EMBASE (January 1980 to March 2016), Latin American and Caribbean Health
Statins worsen glycemic control of T2DM in target LDL-c level and LDL-c reduction dependent manners: a meta-analysis. Recent studies demonstrated that a low target low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) level, high LDL-c reduction and high dose of statin therapy increased incident diabetes. This study aimed to explore how statin therapy influences glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Central were searched for randomized control trials inT2DM (...) . Trials with target LDL-c levels of ≤2.6 mmol/L or LDL-c reduction of ≥30% were analyzed. Then, we calculated mean differences in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and fasting blood glucose via stratified LDL-c level, relative LDL-c reduction and statin dose.In total, trials involving 6,875 participants (3,619 statins, 3,256 controls) were included. Meta-analysis showed that detrimental effect of intensive LDL-c lowering statin therapy on HbA1c (SMD 0.10%; 95% CI 0.05, 0.15; p = 0.000) was more severe
Impact of renal function on the effects of LDL cholesterol lowering with statin-based regimens: a meta-analysis of individual participant data from 28 randomised trials. Statin therapy is effective for the prevention of coronary heart disease and stroke in patients with mild-to-moderate chronic kidney disease, but its effects in individuals with more advanced disease, particularly those undergoing dialysis, are uncertain.We did a meta-analysis of individual participant data from 28 trials (n (...) =183 419), examining effects of statin-based therapy on major vascular events (major coronary event [non-fatal myocardial infarction or coronary death], stroke, or coronary revascularisation) and cause-specific mortality. Participants were subdivided into categories of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at baseline. Treatment effects were estimated with rate ratio (RR) per mmol/L reduction in LDL cholesterol.Overall, statin-based therapy reduced the risk of a first major vascular event
Impact of Statin Therapy on Plasma Resistin and Visfatin Concentrations: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Controlled Clinical Trials. The beneficial effects of statin therapy in reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is not merely explained by the lipid-modulating effects. Although adipokines levels have been associated with cardiometabolic disorders, a few studies have explored the effect of statin on resistin and visfatin. We aimed to evaluate the impact of statin therapy (...) on levels of resistin and visfatin through a meta-analysis of published studies. A systematic literature search in Medline and SCOPUS databases was conducted up to January 2015 to identify controlled trials assessing changes in plasma concentrations of visfatin and resistin during treatment with statins. Quantitative data synthesis was performed using a random-effects model, with weighed mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) as summary statistics. 12 eligible studies with 14 treatment
[META-ANALYSIS OF CLINICAL STUDIES ON THE USE OF STATINS FOR PREVENTION OF ATRIAL FIBRILLATION SOON AFTER CORONARY BYPASS SURGERY]. Atrial fibrillation (AF) develops in the early postoperative period in each third patient undergoing coronary bypass surgery (CBPS). Multifactorial pathogenesis of postoperative AF is unclear. The concept of postoperative inflammation as a potential basic mechanism of this condition has been implied in many studies. Pre- and postoperative treatment (...) with antiinflammatory statins proved beneficial as a means for reducing the frequency of AF.The meta-analysis is based on the results of 15 clinical studies carried out in the last 15 years. They included 9369 patients of whom 5598 (59.75%) used statins and 3771 (49.25%) did not receive them. The following endpoints were evaluated in the early postoperative periods: fiequency of AF, overall lethality, frequency of cerebral circulation disorders and myocardial infarction. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI were calculated
Efficacy of Statin Therapy in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Since the evidence regarding statin therapy in PAH has not been conclusive, we assessed the impact of statin therapy in PAH through a systematic review and meta-analysis of available studies. We searched selected databases up to August 1, 2015 to identify the studies investigating the effect of statin administration on PAH. Meta-analysis was performed using either a fixed-effects or random (...) -effect model according to I(2) statistic. Meta-analysis of 8 studies with 665 patients did not suggest any significant improvement in 6-min walking distance (6MWD) by statin therapy (weighed mean difference [WMD]: -6.08 m, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -25.66, 13.50, p = 0.543; Q = 8.41, I(2) = 28.64%). Likewise, none of the other indices including pulmonary arterial pressure (WMD: -0.97 mmHg, 95%CI: -4.39, 2.44, p = 0.577; Q = 14.64, I(2) = 79.51%), right atrial pressure (WMD: 1.01 mmHg, 95%CI
Effect of Targeting Inflammation With Salsalate: The TINSAL-CVD Randomized Clinical Trial on Progression of Coronary Plaque in Overweight and Obese Patients Using Statins. Inflammation may contribute to pathological associations among obesity, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease.To determine whether targeting inflammation using salsalate compared with placebo reduces progression of noncalcified coronary artery plaque.In the Targeting Inflammation Using Salsalate in Cardiovascular (...) Disease (TINSAL-CVD) trial participants were randomly assigned between September 23, 2008, and July 5, 2012, to 30 months of salsalate or placebo in addition to standard, guideline-based therapies. Randomization was computerized and centrally allocated, with patients, health care professionals, and researchers masked to treatment assignment. Participants were overweight and obese statin-using patients with established, stable coronary heart disease.Salsalate (3.5 g/d) or placebo orally over 30