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Latest & greatest articles for statin
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The Effect of Statins on the Functionality of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ Regulatory T-cells in Acute Coronary Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials in Asian Populations. Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is characterised by increased effector cells and decreased regulatory T-cells (Tregs). Statins have been shown to be clinically beneficial in ACS patients. This effect could be mediated via the induction of Tregs in ACS patients. The aim of this systemic review (...) and meta-analysis was to evaluate whether statin therapy enhances the frequency of Tregs determined by CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ in this subset of patients. A comprehensive search of PubMed and Embase was performed. Studies were restricted to randomised controlled trials that quantified CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ cell frequency by flow cytometric analysis before and after statin treatment in adults diagnosed with ACS. A minimum of at least two of the conventional markers to identify Tregs was compulsory. Four randomised
Effect of statin treatment on circulating malondialdehyde concentrations: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The effect of statins on oxidative stress markers, such as malondialdehyde (MDA), is still a matter of debate. We sought to address this issue by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of published data on the effect of statin treatment on systemic MDA concentrations.A literature search was conducted on MEDLINE/PubMed, ISI Web of Sciences and Scopus. Data were pooled using (...) a random-effects model.A total of 35 studies assessing MDA concentrations before and after statin treatment in 1512 participants (mean age 53.6 years, 48.7% males) were identified. Extreme between-study heterogeneity was observed (I2 = 96.0%, p < 0.001). Pooled standardized mean difference (SMD) showed a significant reduction in plasma MDA concentrations after treatment (SMD = -1.47 µmol/l, 95% confidence interval = -1.89 to -1.05 μmol/l; p < 0.001). Similarly, a subgroup analysis of 10 studies
Does statin increase the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage in stroke survivors? A meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis. It remains debatable whether statin increases the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in poststroke patients.We systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE, and CENTRAL for randomized controlled trials. Trial sequential analysis (TSA) was conducted to assess the reliability and conclusiveness of the available evidence in the meta-analysis. To evaluate the overall (...) effectiveness, the net composite endpoints were derived by totaling ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular mortality.A total of 17 trials with 11,576 subjects with previous ischemic stroke, TIA, or ICH were included, in which statin therapy increased the risk of hemorrhagic stroke (risk ratio [RR], 1.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-1.87), but reduced the risk of ischemic stroke (RR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.75-0.95). For the net
Ezetimibe in high-risk, previously treated statin patients: a systematic review and network meta-analysis of lipid efficacy. While statins are used as first-line treatments for high-risk patients with hypercholesterolemia, statin monotherapy is often insufficient to achieve target low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Second-line treatment options include up-titration of statin dose, switching to a more potent statin, or combination therapy, e.g., with ezetimibe. The aim (...) of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of adding ezetimibe to simvastatin, atorvastatin, or rosuvastatin monotherapy versus doubling the dosage or switching to a higher-potency statin in a population of patients with hypocholesterolemia at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and who had been previously treated with a statin.A systematic literature search was performed and evidence bases were established for populations of atorvastatin-, simvastatin-, and rosuvastatin-experienced patients using
The effect of statins on psoriasis severity: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Statins may reduce the severity of psoriasis, but the available evidence is unclear. We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies (RCTs) that investigated the effect of statins on psoriasis severity assessed with the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI).Two investigators searched independently the following databases: Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (...) and ClinicalTrials.gov from inception to February 2019. Additionally, reference lists from all available articles were searched manually. We included only RCTs carried out among adult (≥ 16 years) patients with psoriasis who received oral statins for ≥ 8 weeks and had psoriasis severity assessed with the PASI at baseline and at the end of follow-up. We used random effects meta-analysis to calculate the mean difference (D) in PASI change between patients who received either a statin or a comparator.Of 279 records
Statins and risk of thromboembolism: A meta-regression to disentangle the efficacy-to-effectiveness gap using observational and trial evidence. Meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies indicate a lower risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) associated with statin treatment. We aimed to compare the effect of statin therapy in these two settings and to identify and quantify potential factors to explain statin efficacy and effectiveness.We electronically (...) searched on December 11th, 2018, articles reporting on first VTE events in RCTs (statin vs placebo) and in observational studies (participants exposed vs non-exposed to statin). We performed Knapp-Hartung random-effect meta-analyses to calculate pooled relative risks (RRs) of VTE events associated with statin treatment, separately for RCTs and observational studies; and estimated the ratio of the relative risk (RRR) comparing RCTs and observational studies using meta-regressions, progressively adjusted
Association Between Genetically Proxied Inhibition of HMG-CoAReductase and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer. Preclinical and epidemiological studies indicate a potential chemopreventive role of statins in epithelial ovarian cancer risk.To evaluate the association of genetically proxied inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase (ie, genetic variants related to lower function of HMG-CoAreductase, target of statins) with epithelial ovarian cancer among the general (...) population and in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers.Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in HMGCR, NPC1L1, and PCSK9 associated with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis (N ≤196 475) were used to proxy therapeutic inhibition of HMG-CoAreductase, Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1) and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), respectively. Summary statistics were obtained for these SNPs from a GWAS meta-analysis of case-control analyses
Pleiotropic Effects of Statins: Untapped Potential for Statin Pharmacotherapy. Statins are effective for primary and secondary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. They also have systemic anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating properties suggesting potential utility for improving clinical outcomes for a wide range of diseases. The literature provides data suggesting benefit in patients with comorbidities associated with contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), chronic obstructive (...) pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia, head injury, neurological disease (e.g. Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease), prostate cancer, nuclear cataract and spinal cord injury. This systematic review evaluates the current evidence supporting the potential benefit of statins outside their customary role of attenuating cardiovascular risk reduction.The electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, and clinicaltrials.gov were searched for studies published January 2000 - March 2018 reporting comorbidity reduction
Efficacy and safety of statin therapy in pulmonary hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a multi-causal disease and no satisfactory therapeutic strategies for it. Statins have been suggested as potential drugs in PH, whose effects in different clinic types of PH have not been conclusive. In this study, we included randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) evaluating the efficacy and safety of statins therapy in PH.We searched databases including (...) Medline, Embase, Cochrane, PubMed and Web of science, with time up to January 1, 2019. With 95% confidence interval (CI), weighted mean difference (WMD) or standardized mean difference (SMD) was pooled and calculated in a random or fixed effect model according to I2 statistic.A total of nine RCTs with 657 patients were included. Four types of statins (atorvastatin, pravastatin, rosuvastatin and simvastatin) were used at different doses (10-80 mg daily) for up to 6 months. In the pooled-data analysis
Relationships of Statin Therapy and Hyperlipidemia With the Incidence, Rupture, Postrepair Mortality, and All-Cause Mortality of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm and Cerebral Aneurysm: A Meta-analysis and Systematic Review. Statins have been suggested in previous studies to play a protective role in experimental cerebral aneurysm (CA) models; however, no evidence supports that the application of statins can protect against aneurysm rupture in humans, and the risks of lipid levels and aneurysms remain (...) unknown. Therefore, this meta-analysis aimed to summarize and update the epidemiological evidence to systematically assess the relationships of statin therapy and hyperlipidemia with the incidence, rupture, postrepair mortality, and all-cause mortality of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and CA. Related studies were initially retrieved from the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library from inception to August 4, 2018. Subsequently, 33 studies were enrolled into this meta-analysis
Berberine and Dyslipidemia: Different Applications and Biopharmaceutical Formulations Without Statin-Like Molecules-A Meta-Analysis. The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy of berberine taken alone or in other formulations (with silymarin or other mixtures) on dyslipidemia through a systematic review of the literature and a meta-analysis. A systematic investigation was conducted on 19 studies that were selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Both controlled trials (n = 12
Efficacy of combination therapy with ezetimibe and statins versus a double dose of statin monotherapy in participants with hypercholesterolemia: a meta-analysis of literature. The aim of this study was to compare and summarize the lipid-altering effects of combination therapy with ezetimibe and statins (E/S) and a double dose of statin (D/S) monotherapy on patients with hypercholesterolemia.We conducted search on 2 medical databases, PubMed and EMBASE to identify all relevant studies. A meta (...) -analysis was performed to clarify the efficacy in the two groups. Only double-blind Randomized controlled study (RCTs) of efficacy evaluation in the two groups with ezetimibe and statins and a double dose of statin in participants with hypercholesterolemia that examined low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were included. Two reviewers extracted data from all primary studies independently. The primary data were the level of LDL-C, TC
Statins & risk of Clostridium difficile infection is one of the most common healthcare-associated infections worldwide. Recent epidemiologic studies have suggested that statin users may have a lower risk of C. difficile infection, although the results are inconsistent. This meta-analysis was conducted with the aim of summarizing all available data to assess the risk of C. difficile infection among statin users versus non-users.A literature review was performed using the MEDLINE and EMBASE (...) databases from inception to October 2017. Cohort, case-control and cross-sectional studies that compared the risk of C. difficile infection among statin users versus non-users were included. Pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95 per cent confidence interval (CI) were calculated using a random-effect, generic inverse variance method.Six case-control studies and two cross-sectional studies met the eligibility criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. The risk of C. difficile infection among statin users
L-TRUST: Long-term risk of cancer in patients under statins therapy. A systematic review and meta-analysis. Statins are widely prescribed drugs with established efficacy in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular events. Although they are mostly well tolerated, several authors have been emphasizing that the statins' safety profile is not totally clarified especially when considering risk of cancer in patients with long-term exposure to statins. This meta-analysis was aimed (...) at evaluating the risk of cancer in patients with prolonged exposure to statins.Medline, Cochrane library, and clinicaltrials.gov were searched in order to identify studies with a minimum average follow-up of 10 years of exposure to statins and a cancer-related outcome reported. Relative risk (RR) of the primary outcomes and the combined effect was presented using a random-effects model. In the selected randomized control trials (RCT), statin exposure was compared with placebo, and in the selected
Comprehensive evaluation of effects and safety of statin on the progression of liver cirrhosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Statin has been more and more widely used in chronic liver disease, however, existed studies have attained contradictory results. According to the present study, we aimed to test the efficacy and safety of statin via a meta-analysis.Different databases were searched for full-text publication based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. For data-pooling, fixed (...) hemodynamic parameters were improved in statin users for a short-term response. For a long-term follow-up, statin treatment surprisingly decreased mortality rate (HR = 0.782, 95% CI: 0.718-0.846, I2 > 50%) and lower the occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.64-0.86, I2 > 50%) in liver cirrhosis. Statin seemed not to decrease the risk of esophageal variceal bleeding and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. However, statin was proved to decrease the risk of hepatic encephalopathy
lipid or blood pressure levels with appropriate medications). 3 Reducing increased lipid levels is important for the prevention of CVD events. 4 Statins (HMG-CoAreductaseinhibitors) are currently the main class of lipid-lowering drugs and their use reduces the risk of CVD- associated morbidity and mortality. 2 Use of statins: online tool KCE Report 324 Dyslipidaemia is a trouble of function and/or concentration of plasmatic lipids. It includes a number of lipid metabolism troubles that may (...) : Cardiovascular Diseases; Decision Making, Computer-Assisted; Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoAReductaseInhibitors; Primary prevention NLM Classification: WG 120 Language: English Format: Adobe® PDF™ (A4) Legal depot: D/2019/10.273/71 ISSN: 2466-6459 Copyright: KCE reports are published under a “by/nc/nd” Creative Commons Licence http://kce.fgov.be/content/about-copyrights-for-kce-publications. How to refer to this document? De Meester C, Rondia K, Goorden T, Janssens S, Steyaert P, De Laet, C, Albertijn M, Kohn L
Efficacy of Statins in Cerebral Vasospasm, Mortality, and Delayed Cerebral Ischemia inÂ Patients with Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Systematic Review andÂ Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is an acute cerebrovascular disease with frequent cerebral vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). The use of statins for patients with aSAH is controversial. The present study evaluated the efficacy of statins in aSAH-induced vasospasm (...) , DCI, delayed ischemic neurological deficit (DIND), mortality, and other outcomes.A literature search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library. English reports of patients with aSAH who had been treated with statins without combination were included. The outcomes, including cerebral vasospasm, DIND, DCI, mortality, disability, and creatine kinase/alanine aminotransferase/aspartic transaminase elevation, were extracted for meta-analysis.A total of 13 studies, with 776 versus 821
Can alternate-day Statin regimen minimize its adverse effects on muscle and tendon? A systematic review. To review evidence-based data with respect to safety and efficacy of alternate-day statin therapy in dyslipidaemia compared to the standard daily dose.The literature review was conducted at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi from July, 2016 to August, 2017. Electronic database search was carried out to compile available literature using PubMed, Excerpta Medica database and Google Scholar (...) . The most relevant evidence-based research articles published over 10 years were selected. The latest search was dated August 03, 2017.A total of 2,074 articles were initially located. Alternate day statin regimen was reported in 53% of articles. Adverse effects on muscle and tendon were reported in 69% of articles. After scrutiny, 19(0.9%) studies covering alternate-day statin-mediated muscle and tendon disorders and 9(0.4%) studies encompassing the potential pathophysiological mechanisms of statin
Statin therapy for reduction of cardiovascular and limb-related events in critical limb ischemia: A systematic review and meta-analysis. High-intensity statins are recommended for patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is the most advanced presentation of PAD. The benefit of statins in the CLI population is unclear based on the existent studies. Our objective was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis regarding the efficacy of statin therapy (...) . Funnel plots and Egger's test were used to assess publication bias. Nineteen studies including 26,985 patients with CLI were included in this systematic review. Among patients with known data on statin status, 12,292 (49.6%) were on statins versus 12,513 (50.4%) not on statins. Patients treated with statins were 25% less likely to undergo amputation (HR 0.75; 95% CI: 0.59-0.95; I2 = 79%) and 38% less likely to have a fatal event (HR 0.62; 95% CI: 0.52-0.75; I2 = 41.2%). Statin therapy was also
The effect of statins on advanced prostate cancer patients with androgen deprivation therapy or abiraterone/enzalutamide: A systematic review and meta-analysis. To evaluate the effects of statin use on the treatment outcomes (i.e. overall survival and cancer-specific survival) among advanced prostate cancer (PCa) patients treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) or abiraterone/enzalutamide.The original studies, examining the effects of statins on the outcomes (i.e. overall survival (...) and cancer-specific survival) among PCa patients treated with ADT or abiraterone/enzalutamide, were identified through a systematic search by two independent reviewers in the PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, American Society of Clinical Oncology and European Society of Medical Oncology databases. Databases were searched using keywords (abiraterone OR enzalutamide OR androgen deprivation therapy) AND statin. In total, nine eligible studies from 111 references were included for final analysis.Statin use