Latest & greatest articles for traumatic brain injury

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Top results for traumatic brain injury

221. Calcium channel blockers for acute traumatic brain injury. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Calcium channel blockers for acute traumatic brain injury. Acute traumatic brain injury is a major cause of death and disability. Calcium channel blockers have been used in an attempt to prevent cerebral vasospasm after injury, maintain blood flow to the brain and so prevent further damage.To estimate the effects of calcium channel blockers in patients with acute traumatic brain injury and in a subgroup of brain injury patients with traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage.Hand searching (...) in this subgroup, and the pooled odds ratio was 0.67 (95% CI 0.46 to 0.98).This systematic review of randomized controlled trials of calcium channel blockers in acute traumatic head injury patients shows that considerable uncertainty remains over their effects. The effect of nimodipine in a subgroup of brain injury patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage shows a beneficial effect, though the increase in adverse reactions suffered by the intervention group may mean that the drug is harmful for some patients.

2000 Cochrane

222. Hyperventilation therapy for acute traumatic brain injury. (Abstract)

Hyperventilation therapy for acute traumatic brain injury. Because hyperventilation is often associated with a rapid fall in intracranial pressure, it has been assumed to be effective in the treatment of severe head injury. Hyperventilation reduces raised intracranial pressure by causing cerebral vasoconstriction and a reduction in cerebral blood flow. Whether reduced cerebral blood flow improves neurological outcome however, is unclear.To quantify the effect of hyperventilation on death (...) and neurological disability following head injury.The search strategy drew on that of the Injuries Group as a whole. The reference lists of all relevant articles identified were checked and the first author of reports was contacted to ask for assistance in identifying any further trials. Most recent search was done in September 1999.All randomised trials of hyperventilation, in which study participants had a clinically defined acute traumatic head injury of any severity. There were no language restrictions.We

2000 Cochrane

223. Mannitol for acute traumatic brain injury. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Mannitol for acute traumatic brain injury. Mannitol is sometimes dramatically effective in reversing acute brain swelling, but its effectiveness in the on-going management of severe head injury remains open to question. There is evidence that in prolonged dosage mannitol may pass from the blood into the brain, where it might cause reverse osmotic shifts that increase intracranial pressure.To assess the effects of different mannitol therapy regimens, of mannitol compared to other intracranial (...) pressure (ICP) lowering agents, and to quantify the effectiveness of mannitol administration given at other stages following acute traumatic brain injury.The review drew on the search strategy for the Injuries Group as a whole. We checked reference lists of trials and review articles, and contacted authors of trials.Randomised trials of mannitol, in patients with acute traumatic brain injury of any severity. The comparison group could be placebo-controlled, no drug, different dose, or different drug

2000 Cochrane

224. Anti-epileptic drugs for preventing seizures following acute traumatic brain injury. (Abstract)

Anti-epileptic drugs for preventing seizures following acute traumatic brain injury. Seizure activity in the early post-traumatic period following head injury may cause secondary brain damage as a result of increased metabolic demands, raised intracranial pressure and excess neurotransmitter release.To determine the effects of prophylactic anti-epileptic agents for acute traumatic head injury.We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group trials register, Medline and the databases of the Cochrane (...) Stroke Group and Cochrane Epilepsy Group. We also contacted pharmaceutical companies who manufacture anti-epileptic agents, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Epilepsy Division, and the National Institute of Health, United States.All randomised trials of anti-epileptic agents, in which study participants had a clinically defined acute traumatic head injury of any severity. Trials in which the intervention was started more than eight weeks after injury were excluded.Two

2000 Cochrane

225. Corticosteroids for acute traumatic brain injury. (Abstract)

Corticosteroids for acute traumatic brain injury. Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of death and disability. Corticosteroids have been widely used in treating people with traumatic brain injury.To quantify the effectiveness and safety of corticosteroids in the treatment of acute traumatic brain injury.Electronic sources: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and specialised database searches. Additional hand searching and contact with trialists. Date of the most recent search June 1999.All (...) randomized controlled trials of corticosteroid use in acute traumatic brain injury with adequate or unclear allocation concealment.Quality of allocation concealment was scored. Data on numbers of participants randomized, numbers lost to follow up, length of follow up, case fatality rates, disablement, infections and gastrointestinal bleeds were extracted independently and checked.We identified 19 trials with 2295 randomized participants. The effect of corticosteroids on the risk of death was reported

2000 Cochrane

226. Barbiturates for acute traumatic brain injury. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Barbiturates for acute traumatic brain injury. Raised intracranial pressure (ICP) is an important complication of severe brain injury, and is associated with a high mortality rate. Barbiturates are believed to reduce intracranial pressure by suppressing cerebral metabolism, thus reducing cerebral metabolic demands and cerebral blood volume. However, barbiturates also reduce blood pressure and therefore may adversely effect cerebral perfusion pressure.To assess the effects of barbiturates (...) in reducing raised intracranial pressure, mortality and morbidity in people with acute traumatic brain injury. To quantify any side effects resulting from the use of barbiturates.The review draws largely on the search strategy developed for the Cochrane Injuries Group as a whole. However, in addition the Cochrane Library was searched in December 1996 using the text terms "barbiturate*," "pentobarb*," "phenobarb*," "head," and "brain." An updated search was done in April 1999.Randomised or quasi randomised

2000 Cochrane

227. Aminosteroids for acute traumatic brain injury. (Abstract)

Aminosteroids for acute traumatic brain injury. Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of premature death and disability. Post-traumatic membrane lipid peroxidation has been proposed as one mechanism leading to secondary brain damage following head injury. Aminosteroids have been shown to inhibit lipid peroxidation in laboratory animals and have the potential to improve outcome following head injury.To quantify the effectiveness and safety of aminosteroids in the treatment of acute traumatic (...) brain injury.We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group trials register, The Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, MEDLINE and EMBASE. We contacted experts in the field and the company that manufactures tirilazad.We sought to identify all randomised controlled trials of aminosteroids versus placebo in the treatment of acute traumatic brain injury. Studies using a quasi random form of allocation, such as alternation, were excluded from the review.One reviewer examined the electronic search results

2000 Cochrane

228. Cognitive rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury: A randomized trial. Defense and Veterans Head Injury Program (DVHIP) Study Group. (Abstract)

Cognitive rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury: A randomized trial. Defense and Veterans Head Injury Program (DVHIP) Study Group. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a principal cause of death and disability in young adults. Rehabilitation for TBI has not received the same level of scientific scrutiny for efficacy and cost-efficiency that is expected in other medical fields.To evaluate the efficacy of inpatient cognitive rehabilitation for patients with TBI.Single-center, parallel-group (...) , randomized trial conducted from January 1992 through February 1997 at a US military medical referral center.One hundred twenty active-duty military personnel who had sustained a moderate-to-severe closed head injury, manifested by a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 13 or less, or posttraumatic amnesia lasting at least 24 hours, or focal cerebral contusion or hemorrhage on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging.Patients were randomly assigned to an intensive, standardized, 8-week, in-hospital

2000 JAMA Controlled trial quality: predicted high

229. Rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury in children and adolescents

Rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury in children and adolescents Rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury in children and adolescents Rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury in children and adolescents Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment from a member of INAHTA. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation Agency for Healthcare Research (...) and Quality (AHRQ). Rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury in children and adolescents. Rockville: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 2 Suppl.. 1999 Authors' objectives The aim of this report is to conduct a systematic review of the literature about child and adolescent traumatic brain injury (TBI) oriented around key questions and to create a tool that would be used in future evidence-based investigations about recovery from TBI

1999 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.

230. Rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury

Rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury Rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury Rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment from a member of INAHTA. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury. Rockville: Agency for Healthcare (...) Research and Quality (AHRQ). Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 2. 1999 Authors' objectives To examine the evidence for effectiveness of rehabilitation methods at various phases in the course of recovery from traumatic brain injury (TBI) in adults. Specifically, we addressed five questions about the effectiveness of (1) early rehabilitation in the acute care setting, (2) intensity of acute inpatient rehabilitation, (3) cognitive rehabilitation, (4) supported employment, and (5) care coordination

1999 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.

231. Rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury

Rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury Rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury Rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury Chesnut R M, Carney N, Maynard H, Patterson P, Clay Mann N, Helfand M Authors' objectives To examine the evidence for effectiveness of rehabilitation methods at various phases in the course of recovery from traumatic brain injury (TBI) in adults. Searching MEDLINE (1966 to 1997 for randomised controlled trials, otherwise 1976 to 1997), CINAHL (1982 to 1997), HealthSTAR (...) , Carney N, Maynard H, Patterson P, Clay Mann N, Helfand M. Rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury. Rockville, MD, USA: Agency for Health Care Policy and Research. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment; 2. 1999 Original Paper URL Other publications of related interest 1. Chesnut R M, Carney N, Maynard H, Clay Mann N, Patterson P, Helfand M. Summary Report: Evidence for the effectiveness of rehabilitation for persons with traumatic brain injury. J Head Trauma Rehabil 1999;14(2):176-88. 2. Carney N

1999 DARE.

232. Rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury in children and adolescents

Rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury in children and adolescents Rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury in children and adolescents Rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury in children and adolescents Oregon Health Sciences University Authors' objectives The goal was to conduct a systematic review of the literature on child and adolescent traumatic brain injury (TBI), oriented around five key research issues: 1. The effectiveness of early, intensive rehabilitation. 2. The referral (...) , as well as sophisticated analytical methods capable of accounting for individual variation. Bibliographic details Oregon Health Sciences University. Rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury in children and adolescents. Rockville, MD, USA: Agency for Health Care Policy and Research. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment; 2(Supplement). 1999 Original Paper URL Indexing Status Subject indexing assigned by CRD MeSH Adolescent; Brain Injuries; Child; Child, Preschool; Infant AccessionNumber 12000008304

1999 DARE.

233. Rehabilitation of Persons With Traumatic Brain Injury

Rehabilitation of Persons With Traumatic Brain Injury NIH Consensus Statement Volume 16, Number 1 October 26–28, 1998 Rehabilitation of Persons with Traumatic Brain Injury NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH Office of the Director About the NIH Consensus Development Program NIH Consensus Development Conferences are convened to evalu­ ate available scientific information and resolve safety and efficacy issues related to a biomedical technology. The resultant NIH Consensus Statements are intended (...) the remain­ der of the second day and morning of the third. This statement is an independent report of the consensus panel and is not a policy statement of the NIH or the Federal Government. Reference Information For making bibliographic reference to this consensus statement, it is recommended that the following format be used, with or without source abbreviations, but without authorship attribution: Rehabilitation of Persons with Traumatic Brain Injury. NIH Consens Statement 1998 Oct 26–28; 16(1): 1–41

1998 NIH Consensus Statements

234. Treatment of traumatic brain injury with moderate hypothermia. (Abstract)

Treatment of traumatic brain injury with moderate hypothermia. Traumatic brain injury initiates several metabolic processes that can exacerbate the injury. There is evidence that hypothermia may limit some of these deleterious metabolic responses.In a randomized, controlled trial, we compared the effects of moderate hypothermia and normothermia in 82 patients with severe closed head injuries (a score of 3 to 7 on the Glasgow Coma Scale). The patients assigned to hypothermia were cooled to 33 (...) interval, 0.1 to 0.9 at both intervals), although not at 12 months (risk ratio, 0.3; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.1 to 1.0).Treatment with moderate hypothermia for 24 hours in patients with severe traumatic brain injury and coma scores of 5 to 7 on admission hastened neurologic recovery and may have improved the outcome.

1997 NEJM Controlled trial quality: predicted high

235. Treatment of traumatic brain injury with moderate hypothermia

Treatment of traumatic brain injury with moderate hypothermia PEDSCCM.org Criteria abstracted from series in Review Posted: founded 1995 Questions or comments?

1997 PedsCCM Evidence-Based Journal Club

236. Corticosteroids in acute traumatic brain injury: Systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

Corticosteroids in acute traumatic brain injury: Systematic review of randomized controlled trials. PEDSCCM.org Criteria abstracted from series in Review Posted: founded 1995 Questions or comments?

1997 PedsCCM Evidence-Based Journal Club