Latest & greatest articles for tuberculosis

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This page lists the very latest high quality evidence on tuberculosis and also the most popular articles. Popularity measured by the number of times the articles have been clicked on by fellow users in the last twelve months.

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Top results for tuberculosis

21. Linezolid for drug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Linezolid for drug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis. Linezolid was recently re-classified as a Group A drug by the World Health Organization (WHO) for treatment of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB), suggesting that it should be included in the regimen for all patients unless contraindicated. Linezolid use carries a considerable risk of toxicity, with the optimal dose and duration remaining unclear. Current guidelines are mainly based (...) on evidence from observational non-comparative studies.To assess the efficacy of linezolid when used as part of a second-line regimen for treating people with MDR and XDR pulmonary tuberculosis, and to assess the prevalence and severity of adverse events associated with linezolid use in this patient group.We searched the following databases: the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Specialized Register; CENTRAL; MEDLINE; Embase; and LILACS up to 13 July 2018. We also checked article reference lists and contacted

2019 Cochrane

22. One Month of Rifapentine plus Isoniazid to Prevent HIV-Related Tuberculosis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

One Month of Rifapentine plus Isoniazid to Prevent HIV-Related Tuberculosis. Tuberculosis is the leading killer of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Preventive therapy is effective, but current regimens are limited by poor implementation and low completion rates.We conducted a randomized, open-label, phase 3 noninferiority trial comparing the efficacy and safety of a 1-month regimen of daily rifapentine plus isoniazid (1-month group) with 9 months of isoniazid alone (9 (...) -month group) in HIV-infected patients who were living in areas of high tuberculosis prevalence or who had evidence of latent tuberculosis infection. The primary end point was the first diagnosis of tuberculosis or death from tuberculosis or an unknown cause. Noninferiority would be shown if the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval for the between-group difference in the number of events per 100 person-years was less than 1.25.A total of 3000 patients were enrolled and followed for a median

2019 NEJM Controlled trial quality: predicted high

23. A Trial of a Shorter Regimen for Rifampin-Resistant Tuberculosis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

A Trial of a Shorter Regimen for Rifampin-Resistant Tuberculosis. Cohort studies in Bangladesh showed promising cure rates among patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis who received existing drugs in regimens shorter than that recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2011.We conducted a phase 3 noninferiority trial in participants with rifampin-resistant tuberculosis that was susceptible to fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides. Participants were randomly assigned, in a 2:1 (...) ratio, to receive a short regimen (9 to 11 months) that included high-dose moxifloxacin or a long regimen (20 months) that followed the 2011 WHO guidelines. The primary efficacy outcome was a favorable status at 132 weeks, defined by cultures negative for Mycobacterium tuberculosis at 132 weeks and at a previous occasion, with no intervening positive culture or previous unfavorable outcome. An upper 95% confidence limit for the between-group difference in favorable status that was 10 percentage

2019 NEJM Controlled trial quality: predicted high

24. Smartphone-enabled video-observed versus directly observed treatment for tuberculosis: a multicentre, analyst-blinded, randomised, controlled superiority trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Smartphone-enabled video-observed versus directly observed treatment for tuberculosis: a multicentre, analyst-blinded, randomised, controlled superiority trial. Directly observed treatment (DOT) has been the standard of care for tuberculosis since the early 1990s, but it is inconvenient for patients and service providers. Video-observed therapy (VOT) has been conditionally recommended by WHO as an alternative to DOT. We tested whether levels of treatment observation were improved with VOT.We (...) did a multicentre, analyst-blinded, randomised controlled superiority trial in 22 clinics in England (UK). Eligible participants were patients aged at least 16 years with active pulmonary or non-pulmonary tuberculosis who were eligible for DOT according to local guidance. Exclusion criteria included patients who did not have access to charging a smartphone. We randomly assigned participants to either VOT (daily remote observation using a smartphone app) or DOT (observations done three to five

2019 Lancet Controlled trial quality: predicted high

25. Risk of tuberculosis in patients with immune-mediated diseases on biological therapies: a population-based study in a tuberculosis endemic region (Abstract)

Risk of tuberculosis in patients with immune-mediated diseases on biological therapies: a population-based study in a tuberculosis endemic region Real-world epidemiological data on the risk of tuberculosis (TB) in patients with immune-mediated diseases treated with biologics are scarce in TB endemic areas. We investigated the incidence of TB in a population-based setting and stratified the risk of TB among different biological therapies.We collected medical data from a territory-wide

2019 EvidenceUpdates

26. Short-course regimens of rifapentine plus isoniazid to treat latent tuberculosis infection in older Chinese patients: a randomised controlled study (Abstract)

Short-course regimens of rifapentine plus isoniazid to treat latent tuberculosis infection in older Chinese patients: a randomised controlled study Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) management is now a critical component of the World Health Organization's End TB Strategy.In this randomised controlled trial (Chinese Clinical Trial Registry identifier ChiCTR-IOR-15007202), two short-course regimens with rifapentine plus isoniazid (a 3-month once-weekly regimen and a 2-month twice-weekly

2019 EvidenceUpdates

27. Six versus 12 Months of Anti Tubercular Therapy in Patients With Biopsy Proven Spinal Tuberculosis: A Single Center, Open Labeled, Prospective Randomized Clinical Trial-A Pilot study (Abstract)

Six versus 12 Months of Anti Tubercular Therapy in Patients With Biopsy Proven Spinal Tuberculosis: A Single Center, Open Labeled, Prospective Randomized Clinical Trial-A Pilot study A single center pilot study, open labeled, prospective randomized clinical trial.To compare six versus 12 months of anti TB therapy in patients with biopsy proven spinal TB.There is no clear consensus or evidence based guidelines for the duration of treatment of spinal tuberculosis. We studied if 6 and 12 months (...) of anti tubercular therapy (ATT) had equivalent outcomes at 24 months from completion of therapy.A prospective randomized open labeled clinical trial of 6 versus 12 months ATT in patients with biopsy proven spinal-vertebral tuberculosis. The primary end point was absence of recurrence 24 months after completing therapy. Secondary end points were clinical cure at the end of therapy, significant adverse effect of ATT, need for delayed surgery, and residual neurological dysfunction.Hundred patients

2019 EvidenceUpdates

28. Can community pharmacists improve tuberculosis case finding? A mixed methods intervention study in India. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Can community pharmacists improve tuberculosis case finding? A mixed methods intervention study in India. India has the world's highest burden of tuberculosis (TB). Private retail pharmacies are the preferred provider for 40% of patients with TB symptoms and up to 25% of diagnosed patients. Engaging pharmacies in TB screening services could improve case detection.A novel TB screening and referral intervention was piloted over 18 months, under the pragmatic staggered recruitment of 105

2019 BMJ global health Controlled trial quality: uncertain

29. Home-based tuberculosis contact investigation in Uganda: a household randomised trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Home-based tuberculosis contact investigation in Uganda: a household randomised trial. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends household tuberculosis (TB) contact investigation in low-income countries, but most contacts do not complete a full clinical and laboratory evaluation.We performed a randomised trial of home-based, SMS-facilitated, household TB contact investigation in Kampala, Uganda. Community health workers (CHWs) visited homes of index patients with pulmonary TB to screen

2019 ERJ open research Controlled trial quality: predicted high

30. Programmatic management of latent tuberculosis infection in the European Union

Programmatic management of latent tuberculosis infection in the European Union SCIENTIFIC ADVICE Programmatic management of latent tuberculosis infection in the European Union www.ecdc.europa.euECDC SCIENTIFIC ADVICE Programmatic management of latent tuberculosis infection in the European Union ii This guidance was commissioned by ECDC and coordinated by Senia Rosales Klintz, Netta Beer and Marieke J. van der Werf with the support of Helena de Carvalho Gomes (ECDC). The inventory of expert (...) Kingdom), and its members: Judith Bruchfeld (Sweden); Josie Garrett (United Kingdom); Walter Haas (Germany); Einar Heldal (Norway); Rein Houben (United Kingdom); Philip LoBue (USA); Mike Mandelbaum (United Kingdom); Alberto Matteelli (Italy); Giovanni Battista Migliori (Italy); Ivan Solovic (Slovakia); and Martina Vašáková (Czech Republic). Suggested citation: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Programmatic management of latent tuberculosis infection in the European Union. Stockholm

2019 European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control - Public Health Guidance

31. Approaches to detecting tuberculosis in children and youth

Approaches to detecting tuberculosis in children and youth This practice point provides a framework for initiating investigation in children suspected of having infection with  Mycobacterium tuberculosis  (Mtb). Some areas in Canada have a high burden of tubercular disease, with Indigenous populations being most at risk. Tuberculosis (TB) can present either as an acute or subacute illness and both primary or reactivation infection can cause pulmonary or multisystem disease (...) . Tuberculin skin tests and interferon-γ release assays can be used to support a suspected diagnosis. TB elimination in Canada is possible but requires improving social determinants of health, one of the major factors contributing to the spread of TB in populations at risk. Keywords: Bacille-Calmette-Guérin; Break of contact; Latent tuberculosis infection; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Tuberculosis  

2019 Canadian Paediatric Society

32. Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis Tuberculosis - NICE CKS Share Tuberculosis: Summary Tuberculosis (TB) is an infection caused by bacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. People are infected by inhaling the bacterium in respiratory droplets that are released when a person with pulmonary or laryngeal TB coughs. Active disease describes symptomatic or progressive disease of the lung (most common) and/or other organs (extrapulmonary TB). Latent disease occurs when there is no clinically active TB (...) will be arranged by the local specialist team. Advising on symptoms suggesting relapse after treatment completion, and the need to inform the local specialist team or primary care immediately. Have I got the right topic? Have I got the right topic? From age 1 month onwards. This CKS topic is largely based on the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guideline Tuberculosis. Prevention, diagnosis, management and service organisation [ ]. This CKS topic covers the assessment, referral

2019 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

33. Prednisone for the Prevention of Paradoxical Tuberculosis-Associated IRIS. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Prednisone for the Prevention of Paradoxical Tuberculosis-Associated IRIS. Early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients who have tuberculosis reduces mortality among patients with low CD4 counts, but it increases the risk of paradoxical tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS).We conducted this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess whether prophylactic prednisone can safely (...) reduce the incidence of paradoxical tuberculosis-associated IRIS in patients at high risk for the syndrome. We enrolled HIV-infected patients who were initiating ART (and had not previously received ART), had started tuberculosis treatment within 30 days before initiating ART, and had a CD4 count of 100 cells or fewer per microliter. Patients received either prednisone (at a dose of 40 mg per day for 14 days, then 20 mg per day for 14 days) or placebo. The primary end point was the development

2018 NEJM Controlled trial quality: predicted high

34. Digital adherence technologies for the management of tuberculosis therapy: mapping the landscape and research priorities Full Text available with Trip Pro

Digital adherence technologies for the management of tuberculosis therapy: mapping the landscape and research priorities Poor medication adherence may increase rates of loss to follow-up, disease relapse and drug resistance for individuals with active tuberculosis (TB). While TB programmes have historically used directly observed therapy (DOT) to address adherence, concerns have been raised about the patient burden, ethical limitations, effectiveness in improving treatment outcomes and long

2018 BMJ global health

35. Tuberculosis preventive treatment: the next chapter of tuberculosis elimination in India Full Text available with Trip Pro

Tuberculosis preventive treatment: the next chapter of tuberculosis elimination in India The End TB Strategy envisions a world free of tuberculosis-zero deaths, disease and suffering due to tuberculosis by 2035. This requires reducing the global tuberculosis incidence from >1250 cases per million people to <100 cases per million people within the next two decades. Expanding testing and treatment of tuberculosis infection is critical to achieving this goal. In high-burden countries, like India (...) , the implementation of tuberculosis preventive treatment (TPT) remains a low priority. In this analysis article, we explore potential challenges and solutions of implementing TPT in India. The next chapter in tuberculosis elimination in India will require cost-effective and sustainable interventions aimed at tuberculosis infection. This will require constant innovation, locally driven solutions to address the diverse and dynamic tuberculosis epidemiology and persistent programme monitoring and evaluation. As new

2018 BMJ global health

36. What constitutes an effective and efficient package of services for the prevention, diagnosis, treatment and care of tuberculosis among refugees and migrants in the WHO European Region? Themed issues on migration and health

What constitutes an effective and efficient package of services for the prevention, diagnosis, treatment and care of tuberculosis among refugees and migrants in the WHO European Region? Themed issues on migration and health Sally Hargreaves | Kieran Rustage | Laura B Nellums | Jaynaide Powis | James Milburn Santino Severoni | Masoud Dara | Soorej J Puthoopparambil | Jon S Friedland HEALTH EVIDENCE NETWORK SYNTHESIS REPORT 56 What constitutes an effective and efficient package of services (...) for the prevention, diagnosis, treatment and care of tuberculosis among refugees and migrants in the WHO European Region? Themed issues on migration and health, VIIIThe Health Evidence Network The Health Evidence Network (HEN) is an information service for public health decision-makers in the WHO European Region, in action since 2003 and initiated and coordinated by the WHO Regional Office for Europe under the umbrella of the European Health Information Initiative (a multipartner network coordinating all health

2018 WHO Health Evidence Network

37. Prediction of Susceptibility to First-Line Tuberculosis Drugs by DNA Sequencing. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Prediction of Susceptibility to First-Line Tuberculosis Drugs by DNA Sequencing. The World Health Organization recommends drug-susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex for all patients with tuberculosis to guide treatment decisions and improve outcomes. Whether DNA sequencing can be used to accurately predict profiles of susceptibility to first-line antituberculosis drugs has not been clear.We obtained whole-genome sequences and associated phenotypes of resistance (...) . Among the 4037 phenotypic profiles that were predicted to be pansusceptible, 3952 (97.9%) were correctly predicted.Genotypic predictions of the susceptibility of M. tuberculosis to first-line drugs were found to be correlated with phenotypic susceptibility to these drugs. (Funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and others.).

2018 NEJM

38. Phase 2b Controlled Trial of M72/AS01<sub>E</sub> Vaccine to Prevent Tuberculosis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Phase 2b Controlled Trial of M72/AS01E Vaccine to Prevent Tuberculosis. A vaccine to interrupt the transmission of tuberculosis is needed.We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2b trial of the M72/AS01E tuberculosis vaccine in Kenya, South Africa, and Zambia. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative adults 18 to 50 years of age with latent M. tuberculosis infection (by interferon-γ release assay) were randomly assigned (in a 1:1 ratio) to receive two (...) doses of either M72/AS01E or placebo intramuscularly 1 month apart. Most participants had previously received the bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine. We assessed the safety of M72/AS01E and its efficacy against progression to bacteriologically confirmed active pulmonary tuberculosis disease. Clinical suspicion of tuberculosis was confirmed with sputum by means of a polymerase-chain-reaction test, mycobacterial culture, or both.We report the primary analysis (conducted after a mean of 2.3 years

2018 NEJM Controlled trial quality: predicted high

39. Sensitivity and specificity of using trial-of-antibiotics versus sputum mycobacteriology for diagnosis of tuberculosis: protocol for a systematic literature review. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Sensitivity and specificity of using trial-of-antibiotics versus sputum mycobacteriology for diagnosis of tuberculosis: protocol for a systematic literature review. Suboptimal diagnostics for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) drives use of 'trial-of-antibiotics (non-tuberculosis)' in an attempt to distinguish PTB patients from those with bacterial lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). The underlying assumption-that patients with LRTI will report 'response' to broad-spectrum antibiotics, while

2018 Systematic Reviews

40. Handbook on tuberculosis laboratory diagnostic methods in the European Union

Handbook on tuberculosis laboratory diagnostic methods in the European Union TECHNICAL REPORT www.ecdc.europa.eu Handbook on tuberculosis laboratory diagnostic methods in the European Union Updated 2018ECDC TECHNICAL REPORT Handbook on tuberculosis laboratory diagnostic methods in the European Union Updated 2018 ii This report of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) was coordinated by Csaba Ködmön with support from Marieke J. van der Werf, Francis Drobniewski (...) ’ in 2016 and further revised and renamed ‘Handbook on tuberculosis laboratory diagnostic methods in the European Union – Updated 2018’ with changes to Chapters 6.7 and 10.4 in 2018 as new scientific evidence became available. Suggested citation: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Handbook on tuberculosis laboratory diagnostic methods in the European Union – Updated 2018. Stockholm: ECDC; 2018. Stockholm, August 2018 ISBN 978-92-9498-264-3 doi 10.2900/914169 Catalogue number TQ-03-18

2018 European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control - Technical Guidance