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Latest & greatest articles for tuberculosis
The Trip Database is a leading resource to help health professionals find trustworthy answers to their clinical questions. Users can access the latest research evidence and guidance to answer their clinical questions. We have a large collection of systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, regulatory guidance, clinical trials and many other forms of evidence. If you wanted the latest trusted evidence on tuberculosis or other clinical topics then use Trip today.
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Risk of tuberculosis transmission among healthcare workers Data from a prospective molecular-epidemiological study (1997-2015) of patients with culture-confirmed tuberculosis in Hamburg, Germany, were evaluated to assess the occupational risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex transmission in a low-incidence setting. Isolates of M. tuberculosis complex were genotyped using IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Results of structured questionnaires, geographical mapping (...) period was found to be strongly associated with working in a healthcare facility. Although clusters also include many "imported" strains from abroad or regional highly prevalent M. tuberculosis strains with no evident epidemiological connection, routine molecular-epidemiological survey is indispensable to optimising and controlling the effectiveness of TB control strategies in German healthcare settings.
Discovery of a unique Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein throughÂ proteomic analysis of urine from patients with activeÂ tuberculosis Identification of pathogen-specific biomarkers present in patients' serum or urine samples can be a useful diagnostic approach. In efforts to discover Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) biomarkers we identified by mass spectroscopy a unique 21-mer Mtb peptide sequence (VVLGLTVPGGVELLPGVALPR) present in the urines of TB patients from Zimbabwe. This peptide has 100
Peritoneal Tuberculosis After Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy with Extended Lymph Node Dissection Background: Peritoneal tuberculosis (TB) is a relatively uncommon presentation of extrapulmonary TB. Early diagnosis of peritoneal TB is difficult because of its nonspecific clinical manifestation such as abdominal pain, fever, or ascites. Especially early after surgery of abdomen or pelvis, these symptoms can be misdiagnosed as septic peritonitis. There are few reports of peritoneal TB (...) . Bacterial infection of a lymphocele was considered, and cefmetazole 2 g/day for 3 days was prescribed. Despite antibacterial therapy, fever persisted. Polymerase chain reaction testing of ascitic fluid was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The patient was effectively treated with anti-TB therapy. Conclusion: This is the first report of peritoneal TB as a postoperative complication of RALP with extended lymph node dissection. His preoperative chest CT showed granular shadows in left upper lung
Daily vs Intermittent Antituberculosis Therapy for Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Patients With HIV: A Randomized Clinical Trial The benefit of daily over thrice-weekly antituberculosis therapy among HIV-positive patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) who are receiving antiretroviral therapy remains unproven.To compare the efficacy and safety of daily, part-daily, and intermittent antituberculosis therapy regimens in the treatment of HIV-associated pulmonary TB.This open-label, randomized (...) clinical trial was conducted by the National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis, south India. Adults infected with HIV with newly diagnosed, culture-positive, pulmonary TB were enrolled between September 14, 2009, and January 18, 2016.Patients were randomized to daily, part-daily, and intermittent antituberculosis therapy regimens, stratified by baseline CD4 lymphocyte count and sputum smear grade. Antiretroviral therapy was initiated as per national guidelines. Clinical and sputum microbiological
Physicians' perspectives on communication and decision making in clinical encounters for treatment of latent tuberculosis infection The aim of the study was to explore the views of tuberculosis (TB) physicians on treatment of latent TB infection (LTBI), focusing on decision making and communication in clinical practice. 20 Australian TB physicians participated in a semistructured interview in person or over the telephone. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically
Potential Application of Digitally Linked Tuberculosis Diagnostics for Real-Time Surveillance of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis Transmission: Validation and Analysis of Test Results Tuberculosis (TB) is the highest-mortality infectious disease in the world and the main cause of death related to antimicrobial resistance, yet its surveillance is still paper-based. Rifampicin-resistant TB (RR-TB) is an urgent public health crisis. The World Health Organization has, since 2010, endorsed a series
OMNIgene.SPUTUM suppresses contaminants while maintaining Mycobacterium tuberculosis viability and obviates cold-chain transport Tuberculosis (TB) diagnostics are centralised, requiring long-distance transportation of specimens in most resource-limited settings. We evaluated the ability of OMNIgene.SPUTUM (OM-S) to obviate cold-chain transport of TB specimens. A two-arm (same-day and after 5 days sample processing) study was conducted to assess contamination rates and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (...) viability in OM-S-treated samples against the standard decontamination procedure (SDP) in Mozambique, using Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) and mycobacterial growth indicator tube (MGIT) culture and molecular bacterial load assay. 270 specimens were processed using OM-S and SDP in same-day and 5-day arms. Contamination was lower in OM-S-treated than SDP-treated cultures: 12% versus 15% and 2% versus 27% in the same-day and 5-day arms, respectively. M. tuberculosis recovery in OM-S-treated LJ cultures was 10
Longitudinal analysis of HIV risk behaviour patterns and their predictors among public primary care patients with tuberculosis in South Africa The goal of this study was to identify various HIV risk behaviours among tuberculosis (TB) patients in a longitudinal study design in South Africa. In 42 public primary healthcare facilities in three districts in three provinces, adult new TB and TB retreatment patients with hazardous or harmful alcohol use were interviewed within 1 month of initiation
Leveraging tuberculosis case relative locations to enhance case detection and linkage to care in Swaziland In Swaziland, as in many high HIV/TB burden settings, there is not information available regarding the household location of TB cases for identifying areas of increased TB incidence, limiting the development of targeted interventions. Data from "Butimba", a TB REACH active case finding project, was re-analyzed to provide insight into the location of TB cases surrounding Mbabane (...) = -0.57, p = 0.17) or the population adjusted TB cases (Spearman rho = 0.14, p = 0.75) per Tinkhundla.Reducing TB incidence in high-burden settings demands novel analytic approaches to study TB case locations. We demonstrated the feasibility of linking relative locations to more precise geographical areas, enabling data-driven guidance for National Tuberculosis Programs' resource allocation. In collaboration with the Swazi National Tuberculosis Control Program, this analysis highlighted opportunities
Time to change the single-centre approach to management of patients with tuberculosis: a novel network platform with automatic data import and data sharing Time to change the single-centre approach to TB http://ow.ly/lCeM30hBcbB.
Signatures of Selection at Drug Resistance Loci in Mycobacterium tuberculosisTuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death by an infectious disease, and global TB control efforts are increasingly threatened by drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Unlike most bacteria, where lateral gene transfer is an important mechanism of resistance acquisition, resistant M. tuberculosis arises solely by de novo chromosomal mutation. Using whole-genome sequencing data from two natural populations (...) of M. tuberculosis, we characterized the population genetics of known drug resistance loci using measures of diversity, population differentiation, and convergent evolution. We found resistant subpopulations to be less diverse than susceptible subpopulations, consistent with ongoing transmission of resistant M. tuberculosis. A subset of resistance genes ("sloppy targets") were characterized by high diversity and multiple rare variants; we posit that a large genetic target for resistance
Household-Contact Investigation for Detection of Tuberculosis in Vietnam. Active case finding is a top priority for the global control of tuberculosis, but robust evidence for its effectiveness in high-prevalence settings is lacking. We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of household-contact investigation, as compared with standard, passive measures alone, in Vietnam.We performed a cluster-randomized, controlled trial at clinics in 70 districts (local government areas with an average (...) population of approximately 500,000 in urban areas and 100,000 in rural areas) in eight provinces of Vietnam. Health workers at each district clinic or hospital were assigned to perform either household-contact intervention plus standard passive case finding (intervention group) or passive case finding alone (control group). In the intervention districts, household contacts of patients with positive results for tuberculosis on sputum smear microscopy (smear-positive tuberculosis) were invited
Pleural tuberculosis: medical thoracoscopy greatly increases the diagnostic accuracy Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of a standardised work-up in the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis (TB) that included fibreoptic bronchoscopy and medical thoracoscopy. A consecutive series of 52 pleural TB patients observed during the period 2001-2015 was evaluated retrospectively. 20 females, mean (range) age 39.7 (18-74) years, and 32 males, mean (range) age 45.75 (21-83) years, were included (28 (...) non-EU citizens (53.8%)). The diagnosis of TB infections was established by identification (using stains, culture or molecular tests) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the pleura, sputum and/or bronchial specimens, or by evidence of caseous granulomas on pleural biopsies. Patients with and without lung lesions were considered separately. The diagnostic yield of the microbiological tests on pleural fluid was 17.3% (nine out of 52 patients). Among the 18 patients with lung lesions, bronchial samples
Strategies for the Management of Latent or Previously Treated Tuberculosis: Clinical Effectiveness, Cost-Effectiveness, and Guidelines Strategies for the Management of Latent or Previously Treated Tuberculosis: Clinical Effectiveness, Cost-Effectiveness, and Guidelines | CADTH.ca Find the information you need Strategies for the Management of Latent or Previously Treated Tuberculosis: Clinical Effectiveness, Cost-Effectiveness, and Guidelines Strategies for the Management of Latent or Previously (...) Treated Tuberculosis: Clinical Effectiveness, Cost-Effectiveness, and Guidelines Last updated: December 20, 2018 Project Number: RB1290-000 Product Line: Research Type: Devices and Systems Report Type: Summary of Abstracts Result type: Report Question What is the comparative clinical effectiveness of strategies for the identification and management of latent or previously treated tuberculosis in individuals entering a new country? What is the comparative cost-effectiveness of strategies
Efficacy and safety of intravenous chemotherapy during intensive treatment phase in patients with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis. The purpose of our study was to examine the efficacy and safety of intravenous chemotherapy during intensive treatment phase for patients with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis (pulmonary TB).The study involved 92 patients with newly diagnosed pulmonary TB aged between 20 years and 68 years. All patient with newly diagnosed pulmonary TB (...) and chemosensitive tuberculosis were enrolled in this study. The patients were allocated to two groups. The first (control) group of 46 patients received standard chemotherapy orally. The second (main) group consisted of 46 patients who were prescribed isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol by i / v transfusion, and pyrazinamide orally as a part of the standard treatment.Symptoms of intoxication in pulmonary TB patients from the second group were eliminated faster (1.42±0.35) of a month than the same symptoms
BHIVA guidelines for the management of tuberculosis in adults living with HIV British HIV Association guidelines for the management of tuberculosis in adults living with HIV 2018 (2019 interim update) Writing group members Margherita Bracchi, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital NHS Foundation Trust Clare van Halsema, North Manchester General Hospital, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine Frank Post, King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust Funmi Awosusi, Barts Health NHS Trust, HIVPA Alison (...) in adults living with HIV 7 1 Scope and purpose The overall purpose of these guidelines is to help physicians manage adults with tuberculosis (TB)/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection. Recommendations for the treatment of TB in HIV-positive adults are similar to those in HIV-negative adults. Of note, the term ‘HIV’ refers to HIV-1 throughout these guidelines. 1.1 Guideline development process The British HIV Association (BHIVA) fully revised and updated the Association’s guideline development
Pulmonary tuberculosis Pulmonary tuberculosis - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search Pulmonary tuberculosis Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: March 2018 Summary A notifiable disease. Specific risk factors include having lived in Asia, Latin America, Eastern Europe, or Africa for years; exposure to an infectious TB case; residence in an institutional setting and homelessness. Symptoms may include (...) TB is crucial in interrupting TB transmission. Definition Pulmonary tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis . In many cases, M tuberculosis becomes dormant before it progresses to active TB. It most commonly involves the lungs and is communicable in this form, but may affect almost any organ system including the lymph nodes, CNS, liver, bones, genitourinary tract, and gastrointestinal tract. History and exam presence of risk factors cough fever anorexia weight
Extrapulmonary tuberculosis Extrapulmonary tuberculosis - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search Extrapulmonary tuberculosis Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: May 2018 Summary Epidemiological risk factors include birth in high TB-prevalent countries, exposure at place of residence/work in an institutional setting, and homelessness. Diagnosis may be delayed as a result of non-specific clinical (...) manifestations that progress slowly and the low sensitivity of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear on extrapulmonary specimens. Microbiological proof is the key to diagnosis and treatment, and tissue biopsy is frequently required. Other supportive findings are granulomas and positive AFB stain on pathology, and chest x-ray findings. Initial therapy is a 4-drug regimen of isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol; treatment lasts for at least 6 months. Definition Tuberculosis (TB) is caused