Latest & greatest articles for type 2 diabetes

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Top results for type 2 diabetes

1981. Management of hypertension in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: guidelines based on current evidence. (Abstract)

Management of hypertension in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: guidelines based on current evidence. Hypertension and diabetes are becoming increasingly common. Most patients with both disorders have a markedly worsened risk for premature microvascular and macrovascular complications. The appropriate management of the hypertension seen in almost 70% of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus remains controversial. However, over the past few years, many randomized, controlled trials have (...) drugs are usually needed. On the basis of their apparent superiority in slowing diabetic nephropathy, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors should probably be the first choice. Second and third choices should be a long-acting diuretic and a calcium-channel blocker or a beta-blocker, respectively. Attention should also be directed toward nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic control of hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia.

2001 Annals of Internal Medicine

1982. Long or highly irregular menstrual cycles as a marker for risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. (Abstract)

Long or highly irregular menstrual cycles as a marker for risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although oligomenorrhea has been associated cross-sectionally with insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, it is not known whether oligomenorrhea is a marker for increased future risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM).To prospectively assess risk of type 2 DM in women with a history of long or highly irregular menstrual cycles.The Nurses' Health Study II, a prospective observational cohort study.A (...) total of 101 073 women who had no prior history of DM and who reported their usual menstrual cycle pattern at age 18 to 22 years on the baseline (1989) questionnaire.Incident reports of DM, with follow-up through 1997, compared among women categorized by menstrual cycle length (5 categories).During 564 333 person-years of follow-up, there were 507 cases of type 2 DM. Compared with women with a usual cycle length of 26 to 31 days (referent category) at age 18 to 22 years, the relative risk (RR

2001 JAMA

1983. Intake of vitamin D and risk of type 1 diabetes: a birth-cohort study. (Abstract)

Intake of vitamin D and risk of type 1 diabetes: a birth-cohort study. Dietary vitamin D supplementation is associated with reduced risk of type 1 diabetes in animals. Our aim was to ascertain whether or not vitamin D supplementation or deficiency in infancy could affect development of type 1 diabetes.A birth-cohort study was done, in which all pregnant women (n=12055) in Oulu and Lapland, northern Finland, who were due to give birth in 1966 were enrolled. Data was collected in the first year (...) of life about frequency and dose of vitamin D supplementation and presence of suspected rickets. Our primary outcome measure was diagnosis of type 1 diabetes by end of December, 1997.12058 of 12231 represented live births, and 10821 (91% of those alive) children were followed-up at age 1 year. Of the 10366 children included in analyses, 81 were diagnosed with diabetes during the study. Vitamin D supplementation was associated with a decreased frequency of type 1 diabetes when adjusted for neonatal

2001 Lancet

1984. Prevalence of hereditary haemochromatosis in late-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus: a retrospective study. (Abstract)

Prevalence of hereditary haemochromatosis in late-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus: a retrospective study. Although genotyping studies suggest that hereditary haemochromatosis is one of the most common genetic disorders in white people, it is still thought of as an uncommon disease. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that hereditary haemochromatosis is a disease often overlooked in patients with late-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus, a late manifestation of untreated iron overload.We did (...) a retrospective study in which we genotyped for the C282Y and H63D mutations in the haemochromatosis gene in 716 unselected Danish patients who developed type 1 diabetes mellitus after age 30 years and 9174 controls from the general Danish population. We also screened for hereditary haemochromatosis by assessment of transferrin saturation.More patients with diabetes (n=9, relative frequency 1.26%, 95% CI 0.58-2.37) than controls (23, 0.25%, 0.16-0.38) were homozygous for C282Y (odds ratio 4.6, 2.0-10.1, p

2001 Lancet

1985. Hypertriglyceridemic hyperapob: the unappreciated atherogenic dyslipoproteinemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus. (Abstract)

Hypertriglyceridemic hyperapob: the unappreciated atherogenic dyslipoproteinemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Abnormalities in insulin and glucose metabolism do not seem to entirely account for the high frequency of cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. An important additional factor may be hypertriglyceridemic hyperapoB, an atherogenic dyslipoproteinemia that is common in these patients. The major features of hypertriglyceridemic hyperapoB are hypertriglyceridemia

2001 Annals of Internal Medicine

1986. Diet, lifestyle, and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Diet, lifestyle, and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women. Previous studies have examined individual dietary and lifestyle factors in relation to type 2 diabetes, but the combined effects of these factors are largely unknown.We followed 84,941 female nurses from 1980 to 1996; these women were free of diagnosed cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer at base line. Information about their diet and lifestyle was updated periodically. A low-risk group was defined according (...) of follow-up, we documented 3300 new cases of type 2 diabetes. Overweight or obesity was the single most important predictor of diabetes. Lack of exercise, a poor diet, current smoking, and abstinence from alcohol use were all associated with a significantly increased risk of diabetes, even after adjustment for the body-mass index. As compared with the rest of the cohort, women in the low-risk group (3.4 percent of the women) had a relative risk of diabetes of 0.09 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.05

2001 NEJM

1987. Maternal and paternal age at delivery, birth order, and risk of childhood onset type 1 diabetes: population based cohort study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Maternal and paternal age at delivery, birth order, and risk of childhood onset type 1 diabetes: population based cohort study. To estimate the associations of maternal and paternal age at delivery and of birth order with the risk of childhood onset type 1 diabetes.Cohort study by record linkage of the medical birth registry and the national childhood diabetes registry in Norway.Norway.All live births in Norway between 1974 and 1998 (1.4 million people) were followed for a maximum of 15 years (...) , contributing 8.2 million person years of observation during 1989-98. 1824 cases of type 1 diabetes diagnosed between 1989 and 1998 were identified.Incidence of type 1 diabetes.There was no association between maternal age at delivery and type 1 diabetes among firstborn children, but among fourth born children there was a 43.2% increase in incidence of diabetes for each five year increase in maternal age (95% confidence interval 6.4% to 92.6%). Each increase in birth order was associated with a 17.9

2001 BMJ

1988. Fish oil in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (Abstract)

Fish oil in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. People with type 2 diabetes mellitus are at increased risk from cardiovascular disease. Dietary fish oils are known to reduce triglyceride levels, but their impact on cholesterol levels, glycemic control and vascular outcomes are not well known.To determine the effects of fish oil supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes, cholesterol levels and glycemic control in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus.We carried out a comprehensive search (...) of the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Medline, Embase, Lilacs, bibliographies of relevant papers and contacted experts for identifying additional trials. Date of last search: September 2000.All randomized placebo-controlled trials in which fish oil supplementation was the only intervention in people with type 2 diabetes were included. Authors were contacted for missing information.Three investigators performed data extraction and quality scoring independently with discrepancies resolved

2001 Cochrane

1989. Effect of fenofibrate on progression of coronary-artery disease in type 2 diabetes: the Diabetes Atherosclerosis Intervention Study, a randomised study. (Abstract)

Effect of fenofibrate on progression of coronary-artery disease in type 2 diabetes: the Diabetes Atherosclerosis Intervention Study, a randomised study. Atherosclerosis is the most common complication of diabetes. Correction of hyperglycaemia helps to prevent microvascular complications but has little effect on macrovascular disease. Post-hoc analyses of diabetic subpopulations in lipid intervention trials suggest that correction of lipoprotein abnormalities will lead to a decrease in coronary (...) -artery disease. The Diabetes Atherosclerosis Intervention Study (DAIS) was specifically designed to assess the effects of correcting lipoprotein abnormalities on coronary atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes.731 men and women with type 2 diabetes were screened by metabolic and angiographic criteria. 418 were randomly assigned micronised fenofibrate (200 mg/day) or placebo for at least 3 years. They were in good glycaemic control (mean haemoglobin A1c 7.5%), had mild lipoprotein abnormalities, typical

2001 Lancet Controlled trial quality: predicted high

1990. Efficacy of inhaled human insulin in type 1 diabetes mellitus: a randomised proof-of-concept study. (Abstract)

Efficacy of inhaled human insulin in type 1 diabetes mellitus: a randomised proof-of-concept study. Effective glycaemic control in type 1 diabetes mellitus usually requires two or more insulin injections daily. Inhaled intrapulmonary delivery of insulin offers a potential new way to deliver meal-related insulin, eliminating the need for preprandial injections.73 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus were studied in an open-label, proof-of-concept, parallel-group randomised trial. Patients (...) ).This proof-of-concept study shows that preprandial insulin can be given by inhalation in individuals with insulin-deficient type 1 diabetes as a less invasive alternative to conventional preprandial insulin injections.

2001 Lancet Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1991. The clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of pioglitazone for type 2 diabetes mellitus: a rapid and systematic review

The clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of pioglitazone for type 2 diabetes mellitus: a rapid and systematic review The clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of pioglitazone for type 2 diabetes mellitus: a rapid and systematic review The clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of pioglitazone for type 2 diabetes mellitus: a rapid and systematic review Chilcott J, Wight J, Lloyd Jones M, Tappenden P Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health (...) technology assessment from a member of INAHTA. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation Chilcott J, Wight J, Lloyd Jones M, Tappenden P. The clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of pioglitazone for type 2 diabetes mellitus: a rapid and systematic review. Health Technology Assessment 2001; 5(19): 1-71 Authors' objectives This review was performed to evaluate the use of pioglitazone in its licensed indication, in combination with metformin

2001 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.

1992. Guidance on the use of pioglitazone for type 2 diabetes mellitus

Guidance on the use of pioglitazone for type 2 diabetes mellitus Guidance on the use of pioglitazone for type 2 diabetes mellitus Guidance on the use of pioglitazone for type 2 diabetes mellitus National Institute for Clinical Excellence Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation National Institute for Clinical Excellence. Guidance on the use (...) of pioglitazone for type 2 diabetes mellitus. London: National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE). Technology Appraisal Guidance 21. 2001 Authors' objectives To provide guidance on the use of pioglitazone for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Authors' conclusions Guidance 1.1 Pioglitazone is effective at reducing blood glucose when added to oral monotherapy of either metformin or sulphonylurea for patients who have inadequate control of blood glucose on these agents alone. 1.2 Patients with inadequate blood

2001 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.

1993. Patient diabetes education in the management of adult type 2 diabetes

Patient diabetes education in the management of adult type 2 diabetes Patient diabetes education in the management of adult type 2 diabetes Patient diabetes education in the management of adult type 2 diabetes Corabian P, Harstall C Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment from a member of INAHTA. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation Corabian P, Harstall C. Patient diabetes education (...) in the management of adult type 2 diabetes. Edmonton: Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research (AHFMR). AHFMR HTA Report 23. 2001 Authors' objectives This report is a systematic review and critical apraisal of the literature on the use of formal outpatient diabetes education as a therapeutic tool for self-management in adult patients with type 2 diabetes. Authors' conclusions The published reports on the effectiveness of patient diabetes education (PDE) as a tool to promote self-management in adults

2001 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.

1994. Beta-cell function in new-onset type 1 diabetes and immunomodulation with a heat-shock protein peptide (DiaPep277): a randomised, double-blind, phase II trial. (Abstract)

concentrations were low (around 7%) in both groups. T-cell reactivity to hsp60 and p277 in the DiaPep277 group showed an enhanced T-helper-2 cytokine phenotype. No adverse effects were noted.Although this study was small, treatment of newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes with DiaPep277 seems to preserve endogenous insulin production, perhaps through induction of a shift from T-helper-1 to T-helper-2 cytokines produced by the autoimmune T cells. (...) Beta-cell function in new-onset type 1 diabetes and immunomodulation with a heat-shock protein peptide (DiaPep277): a randomised, double-blind, phase II trial. Type 1 diabetes results from autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. The 60 kDa heat-shock protein (hsp60) is one of the known target self antigens. An immunomodulatory peptide from hsp60, p277, arrested beta-cell destruction and maintained insulin production in newly diabetic NOD mice. We did a randomised

2001 Lancet Controlled trial quality: predicted high

1995. C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, and risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. (Abstract)

C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, and risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. Inflammation is hypothesized to play a role in development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM); however, clinical data addressing this issue are limited.To determine whether elevated levels of the inflammatory markers interleukin 6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with development of type 2 DM in healthy middle-aged women.Prospective, nested case-control study.The Women's Health Study, an ongoing (...) US primary prevention, randomized clinical trial initiated in 1992.From a nationwide cohort of 27 628 women free of diagnosed DM, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at baseline, 188 women who developed diagnosed DM over a 4-year follow-up period were defined as cases and matched by age and fasting status with 362 disease-free controls.Incidence of confirmed clinically diagnosed type 2 DM by baseline levels of IL-6 and CRP.Baseline levels of IL-6 (P<.001) and CRP (P<.001) were significantly higher

2001 JAMA Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1996. Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. (Abstract)

Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is increasingly common, primarily because of increases in the prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle and obesity. Whether type 2 diabetes can be prevented by interventions that affect the lifestyles of subjects at high risk for the disease is not known.We randomly assigned 522 middle-aged, overweight subjects (172 men and 350 women; mean age, 55 years; mean body (...) duration of follow-up was 3.2 years.The mean (+/-SD) amount of weight lost between base line and the end of year 1 was 4.2+/-5.1 kg in the intervention group and 0.8+/-3.7 kg in the control group; the net loss by the end of year 2 was 3.5+/-5.5 kg in the intervention group and 0.8+/-4.4 kg in the control group (P<0.001 for both comparisons between the groups). The cumulative incidence of diabetes after four years was 11 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 6 to 15 percent) in the intervention group

2001 NEJM Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1997. Renoprotective effect of the angiotensin-receptor antagonist irbesartan in patients with nephropathy due to type 2 diabetes. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Renoprotective effect of the angiotensin-receptor antagonist irbesartan in patients with nephropathy due to type 2 diabetes. It is unknown whether either the angiotensin-II-receptor blocker irbesartan or the calcium-channel blocker amlodipine slows the progression of nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes independently of its capacity to lower the systemic blood pressure.We randomly assigned 1715 hypertensive patients with nephropathy due to type 2 diabetes to treatment with irbesartan (...) angiotensin-II-receptor blocker irbesartan is effective in protecting against the progression of nephropathy due to type 2 diabetes. This protection is independent of the reduction in blood pressure it causes.

2001 NEJM Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1998. Effects of losartan on renal and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of losartan on renal and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy. Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Interruption of the renin-angiotensin system slows the progression of renal disease in patients with type 1 diabetes, but similar data are not available for patients with type 2, the most common form of diabetes. We assessed the role of the angiotensin-II-receptor antagonist losartan in patients with type 2 diabetes (...) . The benefit exceeded that attributable to changes in blood pressure. The composite of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular causes was similar in the two groups, although the rate of first hospitalization for heart failure was significantly lower with losartan (risk reduction, 32 percent; P=0.005). The level of proteinuria declined by 35 percent with losartan (P<0.001 for the comparison with placebo).Losartan conferred significant renal benefits in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy

2001 NEJM Controlled trial quality: predicted high

1999. The effect of irbesartan on the development of diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes. (Abstract)

The effect of irbesartan on the development of diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes. Microalbuminuria and hypertension are risk factors for diabetic nephropathy. Blockade of the renin-angiotensin system slows the progression to diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 1 diabetes, but similar data are lacking for hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes. We evaluated the renoprotective effect of the angiotensin-II-receptor antagonist irbesartan in hypertensive patients (...) with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria.A total of 590 hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria were enrolled in this multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of irbesartan, at a dose of either 150 mg daily or 300 mg daily, and were followed for two years. The primary outcome was the time to the onset of diabetic nephropathy, defined by persistent albuminuria in overnight specimens, with a urinary albumin excretion rate that was greater than 200 microg

2001 NEJM Controlled trial quality: predicted high

2000. Randomised controlled trial of structured personal care of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Randomised controlled trial of structured personal care of type 2 diabetes mellitus. To assess the effect of a multifaceted intervention directed at general practitioners on six year mortality, morbidity, and risk factors of patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.Pragmatic, open, controlled trial with randomisation of practices to structured personal care or routine care; analysis after 6 years.311 Danish practices with 474 general practitioners (243 in intervention group and 231 (...) )). Intervention doctors arranged more follow up consultations, referred fewer patients to diabetes clinics, and set more optimistic goals.In primary care, individualised goals with educational and surveillance support may for at least six years bring risk factors of patients with type 2 diabetes to a level that has been shown to reduce diabetic complications but without weight gain.

2001 BMJ Controlled trial quality: uncertain