Latest & greatest articles for type 2 diabetes

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Top results for type 2 diabetes

1941. Cost-effectiveness of use of the GlucoWatch Biographer in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes: a preliminary analysis based on a randomized controlled trial

Cost-effectiveness of use of the GlucoWatch Biographer in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes: a preliminary analysis based on a randomized controlled trial Untitled Document The CRD Databases will not be available from 08:00 BST on Friday 4th October until 08:00 BST on Monday 7th October for essential maintenance. We apologise for any inconvenience.

2003 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1942. Nut and peanut butter consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in women. (Abstract)

Nut and peanut butter consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in women. Nuts are high in unsaturated (polyunsaturated and monounsaturated) fat and other nutrients that may improve glucose and insulin homeostasis.To examine prospectively the relationship between nut consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes.Prospective cohort study of 83 818 women from 11 states in the Nurses' Health Study. The women were aged 34 to 59 years, had no history of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or cancer, completed (...) a validated dietary questionnaire at baseline in 1980, and were followed up for 16 years.Incident cases of type 2 diabetes.We documented 3206 new cases of type 2 diabetes. Nut consumption was inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes after adjustment for age, body mass index (BMI), family history of diabetes, physical activity, smoking, alcohol use, and total energy intake. The multivariate relative risks (RRs) across categories of nut consumption (never/almost never,

2002 JAMA

1943. Coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. (Abstract)

Coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Coffee is a major source of caffeine, which has been shown to acutely reduce sensitivity to insulin, but also has potentially beneficial effects. We prospectively investigated the association between coffee consumption and risk of clinical type 2 diabetes in a population-based cohort of 17111 Dutch men and women aged 30-60 years. During 125774 person years of follow-up, 306 new cases of type 2 diabetes were reported. After adjustment (...) for potential confounders, individuals who drank at least seven cups of coffee a day were 0.50 (95% CI 0.35-0.72, p=0.0002) times as likely as those who drank two cups or fewer a day to develop type 2 diabetes. Coffee consumption was associated with a substantially lower risk of clinical type 2 diabetes.

2002 Lancet

1944. Exercise training and the cardiovascular consequences of type 2 diabetes and hypertension: plausible mechanisms for improving cardiovascular health. (Abstract)

Exercise training and the cardiovascular consequences of type 2 diabetes and hypertension: plausible mechanisms for improving cardiovascular health. The coexistence of type 2 diabetes and hypertension is especially damaging to cardiovascular health. Most trials of exercise training for these conditions have focused on glycemic control and blood pressure reduction. Less is known about the effects of exercise on the cardiovascular consequences of diabetes and hypertension. This article reviews (...) the available evidence and plausible mechanisms by which exercise training may improve the cardiovascular health of persons with type 2 diabetes and hypertension and provides practical guidelines for exercise prescription. A MEDLINE search was performed for January 1985 to June 2002. Bibliographies from relevant articles, professional society clinical practice guidelines, and books were also reviewed. Because few large, randomized trials exist on these topics, meta-analyses, smaller trials, nonrandomized

2002 JAMA

1945. Increase in nocturnal blood pressure and progression to microalbuminuria in type 1 diabetes. (Abstract)

Increase in nocturnal blood pressure and progression to microalbuminuria in type 1 diabetes. Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and microalbuminuria often have elevated blood pressure while they are asleep, but it is not known whether the elevation develops concomitantly with microalbuminuria or precedes it.We monitored 75 adolescents and young adults who had had type 1 diabetes with normal urinary albumin excretion and blood pressure for more than five years. Ambulatory blood-pressure (...) percent confidence interval, 44 to 110 percent) in subjects with a ratio of 0.9 or less than in those with a ratio higher than 0.9 (P=0.01).In persons with type 1 diabetes, an increase in systolic blood pressure during sleep precedes the development of microalbuminuria. In those whose blood pressure during sleep decreases normally, the progression from normal albumin excretion to microalbuminuria appears to be less likely.Copyright 2002 Massachusetts Medical Society

2002 NEJM

1946. Diet and risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes. (Abstract)

Diet and risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes. A high intake of saturated fat is an important risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD) and type 2 diabetes. However the declining rates of CHD in many affluent societies and the steady increase in type 2 diabetes worldwide suggest that these important causes of serious morbidity and premature mortality have differing risk or protective factors worldwide. Changed macronutrient composition, reduced cigarette smoking, and improved (...) at lowering rates of obesity are the changes most likely to reduce the epidemic numbers of people with type 2 diabetes and CHD.

2002 Lancet

1947. Tests of glycemia for the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. (Abstract)

Tests of glycemia for the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This paper discusses tests of glycemia for the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus, with particular reference to the 1997 diagnostic criteria of the American Diabetes Association. The potential benefits of the lower diagnostic threshold for fasting plasma glucose are not well defined. However, the change in the diagnostic cut-off for diabetes mellitus affects as many as 1.9 million persons in the United States; therefore (...) , the medical and social costs of the lower threshold may be considerable. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is defined by a threshold imposed on the continuous distribution of glycemic levels, typically with respect to risk for microvascular complications. However, the burden of type 2 diabetes relates more to macrovascular than microvascular complications. Because no clear threshold exists for macrovascular complications, a formal balancing of direct and indirect costs with both microvascular and macrovascular

2002 Annals of Internal Medicine

1948. Adiponectin and development of type 2 diabetes in the Pima Indian population. (Abstract)

Adiponectin and development of type 2 diabetes in the Pima Indian population. Adiponectin is a collagen-like circulating protein secreted by adipocytes that is proposed to mediate obesity-related resistance to insulin. In a case-control series, we assessed the role of adiponectin in later development of type 2 diabetes in 70 patients who later developed type 2 diabetes and 70 controls, matched for body-mass index, age, and sex. Cases and controls were taken from the longitudinal study of health (...) in the Pima Indian population. At baseline, the concentration of adiponectin was lower in cases than in controls (p=0.01) and individuals with high concentrations of this protein were less likely to develop type 2 diabetes than those with low concentrations (incidence rate ratio 0.63 [95% CI 0.43-0.92]; p=0.02).

2002 Lancet

1949. Predictors of acute complications in children with type 1 diabetes. (Abstract)

Predictors of acute complications in children with type 1 diabetes. Diabetic ketoacidosis and severe hypoglycemia are acute complications of type 1 diabetes that are related, respectively, to insufficient or excessive insulin treatment. However, little is known about additional modifiable risk factors.To examine the incidence of ketoacidosis and severe hypoglycemia in children with diabetes and to determine the factors that predict these complications.A cohort of 1243 children from infancy (...) to age 19 years with type 1 diabetes who resided in the Denver, Colo, metropolitan area were followed up prospectively for 3994 person-years from January 1, 1996, through December 31, 2000.Incidence of ketoacidosis leading to hospital admission or emergency department visit and severe hypoglycemia (loss of consciousness, seizure, or hospital admission or emergency department visit).The incidence of ketoacidosis was 8 per 100 person-years and increased with age in girls (4 per 100 person-years in < 7

2002 JAMA

1950. Cost-effectiveness of intensive glycemic control, intensified hypertension control, and serum cholesterol level reduction for type 2 diabetes. (Abstract)

Cost-effectiveness of intensive glycemic control, intensified hypertension control, and serum cholesterol level reduction for type 2 diabetes. Several treatment interventions can reduce complications of type 2 diabetes, but their relative cost-effectiveness is not known.To estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness of intensive glycemic control (relative to conventional control), intensified hypertension control, and reduction in serum cholesterol level for patients with type 2 diabetes.Cost (...) -effectiveness analysis of a hypothetical cohort of individuals living in the United States, aged 25 years or older, who were newly diagnosed as having type 2 diabetes. The results of the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) and other studies were used to create a model of disease progression and treatment patterns. Costs were based on those used in community practices in the United States.Insulin or sulfonylurea therapy for intensive glycemic control; angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor

2002 JAMA

1951. Patients with multiple sclerosis and risk of type 1 diabetes mellitus in Sardinia, Italy: a cohort study. (Abstract)

Patients with multiple sclerosis and risk of type 1 diabetes mellitus in Sardinia, Italy: a cohort study. Individuals from Sardinia, Italy, are at high risk of developing multiple sclerosis and type 1 diabetes mellitus. We attempted to assess the prevalence in this region of type 1 diabetes mellitus in individuals with multiple sclerosis, and to ascertain disease risk factors.We did a cohort study to assess prevalence of type 1 diabetes in 1090 people with multiple sclerosis (...) with multiple sclerosis was, respectively, about three-fold and five-fold that in their healthy siblings (p=0.001) and in the general population (p<0.0001). Presence of other relatives with multiple sclerosis conferred increased risk of type 1 diabetes to healthy siblings of individuals with multiple sclerosis (odds ratio=3.41, p=0.0019). Diabetes risk was six-fold higher in patients with relatives having multiple sclerosis than in healthy siblings of multiple sclerosis patients without other relatives

2002 Lancet

1952. Summary for patients. Splitting the evening insulin dose to avoid low blood sugar levels and to improve sugar control in patients with type 1 diabetes. (Abstract)

Summary for patients. Splitting the evening insulin dose to avoid low blood sugar levels and to improve sugar control in patients with type 1 diabetes. 11926807 2002 04 23 2016 11 24 1539-3704 136 7 2002 Apr 02 Annals of internal medicine Ann. Intern. Med. Summary for patients. Splitting the evening insulin dose to avoid low blood sugar levels and to improve sugar control in patients with type 1 diabetes. I29 eng Clinical Trial Journal Article Patient Education Handout Randomized Controlled (...) Trial United States Ann Intern Med 0372351 0003-4819 0 Blood Glucose 0 Hypoglycemic Agents 0 Insulin 53027-39-7 Insulin, Isophane AIM IM Ann Intern Med. 2002 Apr 2;136(7):504-14 11926785 Adult Blood Glucose metabolism Circadian Rhythm Cross-Over Studies Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 blood drug therapy Drug Administration Schedule Female Humans Hypoglycemia prevention & control Hypoglycemic Agents administration & dosage adverse effects Insulin administration & dosage adverse effects blood Insulin

2002 Annals of Internal Medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1953. Comparison of cardiovascular risk between patients with type 2 diabetes and those who had had a myocardial infarction: cross sectional and cohort studies. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Comparison of cardiovascular risk between patients with type 2 diabetes and those who had had a myocardial infarction: cross sectional and cohort studies. To compare risks of cardiovascular outcomes between patients with type 2 diabetes and patients with established coronary heart disease.Cross sectional study and cohort study using routinely collected datasets.Tayside, Scotland (population 400 000) during 1988-95.In the cross sectional study, among patients aged 45-64, 1155 with type 2 (...) diabetes were compared with 1347 who had had a myocardial infarction in the preceding 8 years. In the cohort study 3477 patients of all ages with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes were compared with 7414 patients who had just had a myocardial infarction.Risk ratios for death from all causes, cardiovascular death, and hospital admission for myocardial infarction were calculated by Cox proportional hazards analysis and adjusted for age and sex.In the cross sectional study the adjusted risk ratio for death

2002 BMJ

1954. Identification of persons at high risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus: do we need the oral glucose tolerance test? (Abstract)

Identification of persons at high risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus: do we need the oral glucose tolerance test? The standard method of identifying persons at high risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus involves detection of impaired glucose tolerance, which requires a costly and inconvenient 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test. Because clinical trials have indicated that diabetes is preventable by using behavioral or pharmacologic interventions, less expensive methods of identifying high-risk (...) cholesterol levels; and triglyceride level.For prediction of 7.5-year incidence of type 2 diabetes, the area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve for a multivariable model involving readily available clinical variables was significantly (P < 0.001) greater than the area under the ROC curve for the 2-hour glucose value alone (84.3% vs. 77.5%). Impaired glucose tolerance represents a single point on the latter curve. Adding the 2-hour glucose measurement to the multivariable model

2002 Annals of Internal Medicine

1955. Effect of 6-week course of glucagon-like peptide 1 on glycaemic control, insulin sensitivity, and beta-cell function in type 2 diabetes: a parallel-group study. (Abstract)

Effect of 6-week course of glucagon-like peptide 1 on glycaemic control, insulin sensitivity, and beta-cell function in type 2 diabetes: a parallel-group study. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) has been proposed as a treatment for type 2 diabetes. We have investigated the long-term effects of continuous administration of this peptide hormone in a 6-week pilot study.20 patients with type 2 diabetes were alternately assigned continuous subcutaneous infusion of GLP-1 (n=10) or saline (n=10) for 6 (...) <0.0001). Haemoglobin A(1c) decreased by 1.3% (p=0.003) and fructosamine fell to normal values (p=0.0002). Fasting and 8 h mean concentrations of free fatty acids decreased by 30% and 23% (p=0.0005 and 0.01, respectively). Gastric emptying was inhibited, bodyweight decreased by 1.9 kg, and appetite was reduced. Both insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function improved (p=0.003 and p=0.003, respectively). No important side-effects were seen.GLP-1 could be a new treatment for type 2 diabetes, though

2002 Lancet

1956. Dietary patterns and risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus in U.S. men. (Abstract)

Dietary patterns and risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus in U.S. men. The role of diet in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus remains unsettled.To examine the association between major dietary patterns and risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus.Prospective cohort study.United States.42 504 male health professionals, 40 to 75 years of age, without diagnosed diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or cancer at baseline.Using factor analysis based on data from food-frequency questionnaires, we (...) person-years), we documented 1321 cases of type 2 diabetes. The prudent dietary pattern score was associated with a modestly lower risk for type 2 diabetes (relative risk for extreme quintiles, 0.84 [CI, 0.70 to 1.00]). In contrast, the western dietary pattern score was associated with an increased risk for type 2 diabetes (relative risk, 1.59 [CI, 1.32 to 1.93]; P < 0.001 for trend). A high score for the western dietary pattern combined with low physical activity (relative risk comparing extreme

2002 Annals of Internal Medicine

1957. Oral antihyperglycemic therapy for type 2 diabetes: scientific review. (Abstract)

Oral antihyperglycemic therapy for type 2 diabetes: scientific review. Care of patients with type 2 diabetes has been revolutionized throughout the past several years-first, by the realization of the importance of tight glycemic control in forestalling complications, and second, by the availability of several unique classes of oral antidiabetic agents. Deciphering which agent to use in certain clinical situations is a new dilemma facing the primary care physician.To systematically review (...) available data from the literature regarding the efficacy of oral antidiabetic agents, both as monotherapy and in combination.A MEDLINE search was performed to identify all English-language reports of unique, randomized controlled clinical trials involving recently available oral agents for type 2 diabetes. Bibliographies were also reviewed to find additional reports not otherwise identified.Studies (63) were included in the analysis if they had a study period of at least 3 months; if each group

2002 JAMA

1958. Oral antihyperglycemic therapy for type 2 diabetes: clinical applications. (Abstract)

Oral antihyperglycemic therapy for type 2 diabetes: clinical applications. Oral agents are the mainstay of pharmacologic treatment for type 2 diabetes, and physicians now have a number of agents to choose from. However, more choices translate into more complex decision making. Many patients with diabetes have associated comorbidities, and most diabetic patients will require more than 1 agent to achieve good glycemic control. This article illustrates several of the pharmacologic approaches (...) to type 2 diabetes through 4 situations that use principles of evidence-based medicine. The scenarios also highlight some of the difficulties in choosing the optimal pharmacologic treatment regimen for individual patients. Physicians should also recognize that type 2 diabetes is a multisystem disorder that requires multidisciplinary care, including education and ongoing counseling for effective patient self-management of the disease. Finally, patient preferences are a vital component of informed

2002 JAMA

1959. Resistin, central obesity, and type 2 diabetes. (Abstract)

Resistin, central obesity, and type 2 diabetes. Resistin, an adipocyte-derived cytokine, causes insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in mice. We investigated whether resistin expression was higher in human abdominal adipose tissue than other adipose tissue depots. We extracted RNA from 32 adipose tissue samples (13 subcutaneous abdominal, seven omentum, six thigh, and six breast). Quantitative PCR was used to determine resistin mRNA expression. Resistin mRNA concentrations were similar (...) in both the subcutaneous abdominal and omental depots. The abdominal depots showed a 418% increase in resistin mRNA expression compared with the thigh. Increased resistin expression in abdominal fat could explain the increased risk of type 2 diabetes associated with central obesity.

2002 Lancet

1960. Effect of the treatment of Type II diabetes mellitus on the development of cognitive impairment and dementia. (Abstract)

Effect of the treatment of Type II diabetes mellitus on the development of cognitive impairment and dementia. There is increasing interest in preventing cognitive impairment and dementia in later life. Epidemiological evidence shows a relationship between cognitive impairment and Type II diabetes. This association is stronger in patients who have been diagnosed for longer periods of time and in those who are on insulin therapy. There is little information on the short- and long-term influence (...) of type of treatment and level of metabolic control on cognitive function of people with diabetes.To assess the effects of different types and intensities of treatments for Type II diabetes on cognitive function.The Cochrane Control Trials Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, SIGLE LILACS and CINAHL as well as a number of ongoing trials databases were searched on 11 June 2002 using appropriate strategies.Randomized controlled trials in which different treatments for Type II diabetes have been compared

2002 Cochrane